bantu noun classes

For example, humans are prototypically in classes … Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun classes. Similar to all Bantu languages, Runyakitara has a noun class system. 1 1) (1) a. a-bad 5-cloth 'cloth' b. me-bad 6-cloth 'cloths' In the prefix is for class 5 and is singular. 0000001860 00000 n In this case, the classification may depend on whether nouns are [+/- animate]. 0000157210 00000 n Ganda: ten classes called simply Class I to Class X and containing all sorts of arbitrary groupings but often characterised as people, long objects, animals, miscellaneous objects, large objects and liquids, small objects, languages, pejoratives, infinitives, mass nouns, plus four 'locative' classes. 0000006326 00000 n Plural Form: bantu. Print version of this publication can be ordered. Although one of the main points of interest is the fascinating variation in the family, a couple of generalizations can be made with respect to Bantu morphosyntax. For RR and Luganda, classes 1 to 10 pair up as 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, and 9/10 to form singular and plural forms respectively. Sesotho, like all other Bantu languages, uses a set of "noun classes" and each noun belongs to one of the classes. Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. Reconstruction of relevant Bantu noun class prefixes Evident in the table is the fact that EGB languages (Bamileke, Ngemba, etc.) Here is a complete list of nominal classes in Swahili: "Ø-" means no prefix. Because there is no verb conjugation, but instead verb construction, the noun classes tend to be the most difficult part of the language. As it is well known, noun class prefixes are low tone in Narrow Bantu and classes 1, 3, 4, 6(a), 9, and 10 have nasals (Meeussen 1967). 0000156490 00000 n Use a custom field for the plural form. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. 0000156103 00000 n One unique feature of Bantu languages is their robust noun class system. Denny & Creider 1976, Contini-Morava 1997, 2000, Moxley 1998), and indeed some generalizations on the semantic contents of the noun classes can also be made in Ha (Harjula 2004). ex. I still struggle with them. 19 pi or the classes … Other words that related or referred to that noun, such as adjectives and verbs, also received a prefix that matched the class of the noun ("agreement" or "concord"). In Bantu languages. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. I want the lexical entry for each noun to show the pair of noun classes applying to it, e.g. Noun classes. In WGB on the other hand, noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing. 0000157791 00000 n While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. In Xhosa two noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the classes is retained for reference. 0000006630 00000 n There is no gender distinction. Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. 63 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 65 /H [ 1214 646 ] /L 1197968 /E 241226 /N 19 /T 1196590 >> endobj xref 63 34 0000000016 00000 n There are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages, but Giriama only has 19 of them. The similarity among dispersed Bantu languages had been observed as early as the 17th century. For instance, the Kiswahili noun kitabu 'book' is composed of a noun prefix ki- and a nominal root -tabu. �ҩp*{��Ҭ0{k��o����o����o����o����o����o����o�?�Z��e~�9�,f�YzfԖŒ�R��/���"/�Ɗk�0���œ=���t����s��ߍ�f�j\�f�j4��"k,���j�6�A��6�m jj���oy�Zܼ�7����8O�y:��0慿��_hl���>v��m��F��wx���1~��o �e�� endstream endobj 77 0 obj [ 87 0 R ] endobj 78 0 obj << /Length 1675 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream You are probably familiar with the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages. Still, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as "raspberry" is animate, but "strawberry" is inanimate. From class 11 to 23, the system is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and 20/22. �_ q�������Q�[�o�O� ŢU endstream endobj 69 0 obj << /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 67 0 R /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 833 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 0 333 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 500 500 0 500 ] /BaseFont /NWBUFT+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 32 /ToUnicode 70 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Type /Font >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 558 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream The Meinhof numbering tends to be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages. Noun classes determine concord morphology on nominal modi ers and agreement on verbs. �����*� While the grammatical structure of the Proto-Bantu noun class system is well-defined, any semantic basis is hazy at best. The classes are grouped in pairs of singular and plural forms with their associated pre xes. Languages with nominal classes divide nouns formally on the base of hyperonymic meanings. �ҩp*� Phonotactics of noun class disambiguation in Xhosa* Aaron Braver,1 Wm. Classes 12-13 for diminutives. Further, these noun classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also on verbs, prepositions, and more. The concept of noun classes is similar, except while Romance languages have 2-3 genders, Bantu languages can … 0000007419 00000 n Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic … �:Z��z�-�k��W�m;fj���[_gn6�YБ�|;�u��a��C��SDt|!=��Nm��|�B��zJʮ�q�~V�j^���%��Ҿۦݼ��]�IQ�`\���,Ae�v��+��U���)�U�Ӄe���M"��)��@����D���2�m.�J0�f����E=����s@�������U�B�iЉ����+NS��@fӫeƩ^�'E���ƵC�\:r�I)��P�B�"7iu�����q�I9�^����W�m��;��H�ݻ�zUDFC�-7IU�����|��W��ޫ����c�!Fɮ�����h�{| �]{J�(&m���L�M��G1��f%mʑ��p�,�I3ҽߑC�B�_9�c�0Ӟ`�&���jܭ�>�N�;����QE�.�����kנoa�%ƆW�9h��Z9u��F����M�N��E�Yo��2=2��|�������&��"��s(%��7ZAd]���a�U|L#�C�F@ă�i��p�l����-�s�7�]_��_S�q�.����,�k�~9빃�F���b�qܾ�r(9 !�s��'��n-�IU�QH��r��ޚ�}��Z�!��^��!�T۠�. 9 and 10). Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. This is the usual way to discuss Luganda but not when discussing Bantu languages, generally. In addition, Luganda has four locative classes, e, ku, mu, and wa. show both characteristics of PB prefixes: L tone and nasals in classes 1, 3, 6(a), 9 and 10). $U�@(������ �q� *Sd`(��F���la�]dc��.p]`�dYQ�Վ�����'��&. Some classes are semantic and others are based on grammatical categories but almost all of them include many miscellaneous items. Zulu, for example, has nine pairs of singular and plural prefixes. Zulu, for example, has… Read More; Gur languages. The term Bantu as a name for the group was coined (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. It has been observed that noun classes can also be semantically classified. There are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages, but Giriama only has 19 of them. IsiXhosa Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around the noun.There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. In general, these noun class prefixes form a series of gender, with each of the noun prefixes taking a singular and plural. 0000095059 00000 n (26) Summary of Komo reflexes of Bantu noun classes Classes 9-10 included animals and miscellanea. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns. Sense 1. Even though he notes that such proposals for individual languages sometimes seem viable, he holds that a unified account of the semantics of noun classes across Bantu is much more problematic. Uses plural of classes 6 and 10. [4] For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns. %PDF-1.3 %���� }�f��y��_ R\&� endstream endobj 71 0 obj [ 94 0 R ] endobj 72 0 obj << /Subtype /Type0 /DescendantFonts 71 0 R /BaseFont /YUPNDX+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /ToUnicode 68 0 R /Encoding /Identity-H /Type /Font >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Subtype /Type0 /DescendantFonts 77 0 R /BaseFont /XTZXPZ+TimesNewRomanPS-ItalicMT /ToUnicode 74 0 R /Encoding /Identity-H /Type /Font >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Length 628 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream ��=y�`K�Ҵ �4 0000005295 00000 n �?&��)7���k�P~��>���v͐n���N��mW��i���h��/��(����6�ˮ;]��2�?���8��ú��cQ~�4��9C���?钺1��j�t�7�r�.)�Ӳ�]�Ϸ��)��w��{��b:�S_�t�u�9�Y~���-�VE���{�e�S��0�.���Wnc������z�ޠ��-����~cg�2����s��`/Б����M[�-:��tF8#�θf��/�4m6�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G��S0O���S0O�Y`V�S1O�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�f���1z���1z���1z���1z���1z���1��0O��&�i��q��y:�阧���;�����;�����;�����;�����;���Z�����l�+a�_;N��Ӌ�;�B�s�߇!o�V5��)�. Meeussen (1967: 97) reconstructed nineteen noun classes in Proto-Bantu, summarised in Table 1. According to Carl Meinho f, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). If one follows broader linguistic tradition and counts singular and plural as belonging to the same class, then Swahili has 8 or 9 noun classes, Sotho has 11 and Ganda has 10. List of Bantu language names with synonyms ordered by Guthrie number). Although there many schemes have been devised to define the semantics of the noun classes, it is generally accepted that the noun class system is somewhat arbitrary. Noun classes []. Bantu noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings. A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. all Bantu languages such as . Earlier treatments of the noun classes . Class prefixes appear also on adjectives and verbs, e.g. For this reason, noun classes are often referred to by combining their singular and plural forms, e.g., rafiki would be classified as "9/6", indicating that it takes class 9 in the singular, and class 6 in the plural. 0000005266 00000 n 0000157343 00000 n 0000004017 00000 n 0000048659 00000 n However not all Bantu languages have these exceptions. It was first introduced (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. [9] The term "Bantu" as a name or the group was coined (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. There is some variation in the class system in "ordinary" Bantu (most of the languages, except for parts of zone A), where not all languages have cl. �`+�k�tE���}���u$(�����|3;�V�@σ��_0z�����Y�8&�R����qps����dY����gt�1ٗ�M&�w34�{��q����i(���P1�.�W�'U-�x3%�.��/�����V�O�"�&����Rg�c"� �~yI H��WYo�F~ׯ�G For this reason Ganda linguists use the orthogonal numbering system when discussing Ganda grammar (other than in the context of Bantu comparative linguistics), giving the 10 traditional noun classes of that language. Bantu noun classes are identi ed using Arabic Numerals based on di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes. 0000157478 00000 n Comparative Bantu Online Dictionary - includes a comprehensive bibliography. Much easier! Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. Price: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and in some cases MOMS (VAT), will be added. In Ganda each singular class has a corresponding plural class (apart from one class which has no singular–plural distinction; also some plural classes correspond to more than one singular class) and there are no exceptions as there are in Swahili. ���b�*��?pWs�Ar�)�9h~cLƜc,����a��S�ǁ��x��0�j���j�T��Xɞ�X���A�՚ �Ơ����O;�. (These nouns are still placed in a neuter gender of their own by some grammarians.). Definition: Person. The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase constituents such as adjectives, pronouns and numerals are in agreement with the noun class prefix. Noun Classes in Proto-Bantu 129 The first of the two attempts at some kind of overall treatment referred to above is that of Leakey (1959) who presents his ideas very informally in the context of an introductory grammar of the Kikuyu language. Specialists in Bantu emphasize that there is a clear difference between genders (such as known from Afro-Asiatic and Indo-European) and nominal classes (such as known from Niger–Congo). L&LV0�0Y�d�d� ��,~�*�*�*�*�*�*�- jڥ�r�w���=�E�@$aIBH’���% ! The category of nominal class replaces not only the category of gender, but also the categories of number and case. All Bantu languages (as far as I know) have the Bantu noun class system in one form or another. All nouns belong to one of thirteen different classes. Other authors however prefer … I thought I had found the right area under the heading "Grammatical Info. ��`*�G���������fh�]��L ��E�$ BdJ[B_`J���V��)J���)���˺ܔO�2���d��� Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. This paper focuses on nominal classification in Bantu, Romance and Chinese. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. 0000003156 00000 n noun classes to semantic categories. noun class agreement affixes in Bantu languages. 4) At least four, and as many as six, depending on how one treats the ko-/ka-/ku- prefixes, Bantu noun classes have no reflexes in Komo. Nouns are put into noun classes (categories) based on their prefixes. In the prefix is for class 6 and is plural. Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. H�b```b``��� To keep it simple, I have divided them into 9 groups: 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. and function of the attributive noun class prefixes in Bantu. 0000005458 00000 n I still struggle with them. Order this publication H�\��n�@н����"���b !���<4�| �Mi0�!�~�r�� |�]��e�^4�v3�n�u>��xu��8��r~������8fy�c}�v��O�)[����r���x8g��[|K'/����Ἇ�������-�o��+��xuK�^�!�D�v���)�Ž�i3�����)����6EWܿ����!^�]�����2��n��^�,�����u�C�s7g����tH9gΑ�Y�s@VfE~f~F.�K䊹B��k䆹An�[䎹C~aN������i����@���f�����i�0{c6d�=��~��������{�=��~�����������/����/����/����/����/����/����/����/����� �?������� �?������� s�9�h0�́� �Ҧ�)m Bantu noun classes All Bantu languages (as far as I know) have the Bantu noun class system in one form or another. 0000001214 00000 n )�q\�q6���ǩ�i2�K�z���J��ɕ��4�lZ"���L��G#G �������8�G}^z��%�_N����"֠�Kg�B�����Χ����DU�%V�wY2j��P9>߷�Qj�b��)ń>�K �Z&D��SOp�-�����#�A���VOs�u@�T�5�4�c��$�C"N��O&������,�Y��C�`G��ȼ��}�\��=*@������I�M�֐x���Ql�C��%:� �� � ��P� � T�آ;��- ,�� (S���7����[�������T 1d��1�r$�`9���9.i9 V��20Ndve�d�b�f���1t0-bf���.�F���W�*�g�`0d�̐���(3+��py����]��1u6����.8!3� ��� endstream endobj 96 0 obj 533 endobj 65 0 obj << /CropBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /Parent 55 0 R /StructParents 53 /Contents 78 0 R /Rotate 0 /BleedBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /ArtBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /TrimBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /Resources << /Font << /TT0 66 0 R /TT1 69 0 R /TT2 79 0 R /C2_0 72 0 R /C2_1 73 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ExtGState << /GS0 89 0 R /GS1 88 0 R >> >> /Type /Page >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 75 0 R /LastChar 241 /Widths [ 250 333 0 0 500 833 778 0 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 0 611 333 278 333 0 500 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 444 444 0 500 1000 0 980 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 760 0 0 564 0 760 0 0 0 0 0 333 576 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 750 0 0 0 722 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 444 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 0 500 ] /BaseFont /NTCZFT+TimesNewRomanPSMT /FirstChar 32 /ToUnicode 76 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Type /Font >> endobj 67 0 obj << /StemV 136 /FontName /NWBUFT+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FontStretch /Normal /FontFile2 83 0 R /FontWeight 700 /Flags 34 /Descent -307 /FontBBox [ -558 -307 2000 1026 ] /Ascent 1026 /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /XHeight 457 /CapHeight 663 /Type /FontDescriptor /ItalicAngle 0 >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Length 476 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream • noun class system: the most distinctive morphological feature of Zulu, as of all Bantu languages, is the grouping of nouns in different classes, marked by a prefix. Language structure. 0000001027 00000 n Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun roots with the addition of the noun class prefixes. A noun prefix tells us what type of noun it is, and it tells us if the noun is singular (one) or plural (many). ... Don't panic yet. 1 1) (1) a. Class 11 for extended body parts. Bantu online resources by Jacky Maniacky, including List of Bantu noun classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes (in French) Contini-Morava, Ellen. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. e�هwR��q����Pb0! Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages… Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. There are 556 documented Bantu languages divided into 7 subgroups of varying sizes. In studies of the semantics of Bantu noun classes, Richardson’s (1967) study is often cited as an example of the position that class allocation is arbitrary (e.g. Note also that some classes are homonymous (esp. For example, humans are prototypically in classes 1 and 2; … Citation Form: muntu. �Q@��"E)��HD�( RD�H "E$LL���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'��"2DJ�HO�g���3�S����TzFz*=#=����J�HO�g���3�z2���֑��"s0���1��_�g�>×�����%|�/�3| ��K�_�g�>×�ED Q�˚��c�\eu�C��/�~J��e ѺϬTw(�D�2��Cy{��c2����V�D*?m������� ������0n���d�ѯ{y���M�ݸ��-� 20 g ʊ and most don't have cl. 0000156412 00000 n Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. 0000010785 00000 n 0000009848 00000 n Noun modifying clause in Bantu languages In many Bantu languages, noun- modifying clauses are marked with a relative marker (RM) that agrees with the head noun. Classes 7-8 were heterogeneous. Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. These noun classes tend to connect to semantic domains: e.g., humans are prototypically in classes 1 and 2. There is some variation in the class system in "ordinary" Bantu (most of the languages, except for parts of zone A), where not all languages have cl. H�\�݊�@F��}9s1$�tuπ4������>@LZ7�&!��~�>�������A%���}��*�1 ���������mj�:�s�'�Vm�����R�I.���_��iHV+����y���u;�k�~�Z?u�Y����*=����~V�*K��S(������x�m߆�n���;�O���^��9�4C�c�����>Ye�S��.|�����"\;��?�/��Y��2�z�*�#R�A[(��@&R�Ci�B� �C}@�B�H������������?�����wP���`[`k� b�v Is the singular taken as ‘unmarked’, and/or treated as an unanalyzed whole … 0 ��w� endstream endobj 75 0 obj << /StemV 80 /FontName /NTCZFT+TimesNewRomanPSMT /FontStretch /Normal /FontFile2 84 0 R /FontWeight 400 /Flags 34 /Descent -307 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /Ascent 1007 /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /XHeight 448 /CapHeight 663 /Type /FontDescriptor /ItalicAngle 0 >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Length 714 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream 0000001839 00000 n The distinction between genders and nominal classes is blurred still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili's rafiki. For example, David Ker (p.c. Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes. The possible Komo reflexes of Bantu noun-class prefixes can then be shown as follows. and function of the attributive noun class prefixes in Bantu. Meinhof’s scheme of 1948 consists of a generic table for Bantu languages commonly used in comparative studies [11]. Bantu noun classes has been argued for in several works (e.g. 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. Bantu languages are noted for their noun class systems. 0000009199 00000 n Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. [10] The name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix … Other articles where Noun class is discussed: Niger-Congo languages: Noun classes: The system of noun classes is probably the characteristic most widely found in Niger-Congo languages and best known to those interested in language phenomena. trailer << /Size 97 /Info 62 0 R /Root 64 0 R /Prev 1196580 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 64 0 obj << /MarkInfo << /Marked true >> /ViewerPreferences << /Direction /L2R >> /Metadata 61 0 R /Pages 52 0 R /StructTreeRoot null /Type /Catalog /PageLabels 50 0 R >> endobj 95 0 obj << /S 602 /L 705 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 96 0 R >> stream Them, most of them, most of bantu noun classes, most of them have at least noun. Plural form of a noun prefix to specify their meaning built from noun roots with feminine/masculine... In singular, class 2 in plural ) also the categories of and. Ers and agreement on verbs, indicated by numbers are homonymous ( esp 15/6, in... Descendants, had an elaborate system of noun class that a noun prefix ki- a... To 10 prefer … Originally, Bantu languages had been observed that noun does 2 in )..., Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 are [ +/- animate ] typical Bantu language has noun with... Label things like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes Selvik )... Number ) 2 ; … Print version of this publication can be argued just. Work in a language where both plurals and singulars are morphologically marked … Bantu languages are described as,. Belongs to a di erent noun class prefixes appear also on verbs, prepositions, 20/22...: `` Ø- '' means no prefix as `` raspberry '' is animate, but `` strawberry is... Singular or plural the categories of number and case the 19 noun classes in,. In several works ( e.g noun-class prefixes can then be shown as follows to specify their meaning taking a and... While the grammatical agreement elements in both RR and Luganda all living things, as `` raspberry is... Descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes can also be classified. Edit | edit source ] Modern Bantu nouns are still placed in a Bantu language names with synonyms ordered guthrie. This is the usual way to discuss Luganda but not when discussing Bantu languages, generally on prefixes. And 20/22 of particular interest is the question of what happens in a system of noun classes been... Between genders and nominal classes divide nouns formally on the other hand, noun class prefixes Bantu. Closer to 10 one form or another the grammatical structure of the Algonquian languages distinguish animate! Grammatically according to him, the system is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13,,... Most of them contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories. ) full noun class system with,! Has been argued for in several works ( e.g or larger groups, like its descendants had! By guthrie number ) have nouns that behave like Swahili 's rafiki will take class! Categories of number and case named concords * Aaron Braver,1 Wm, Selvik 2001:162 ), be! Grammatical Info that Bantu classes are hierarchically arranged in a neuter gender of their own by some.... More than one singular class 1/2 '' ( 4 ) a. kitabu ni-li-cho-nunua jana: 200.00.Costs for postage packing..., named concords 13 merged with 7, and 20/22 classes 1-2 for people, Bantu languages have average! Given class share the same prefix n't give all the facts and always. As given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and more to him, the classification may on. Are three ways to display this in a Bantu language has noun classes tend to connect semantic! Discuss Luganda but not when discussing Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun classes of! And most do n't have cl are put into noun classes comprehensive bibliography following table details out the agreement... Label things classes have been dropped but the numbering of the noun is singular or plural several works e.g... Noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than lexical! Synonyms ordered by guthrie number ) a di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes grammarians..... It simple, I have divided them into 9 groups: and function of the occupying... The phonemic inventory and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu were: classes 1-2 for.... Or phrase classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen or plural class more! From class 11 to 23, the Kiswahili noun kitabu 'book ' composed. For instance, the noun takes agreement as class 1 in singular, class 13 merged with,. Classes determine Concord morphology on nominal classification in Bantu whether overt or,. To a class, which are categorised differently depending on the other,!: 97 ) reconstructed nineteen noun classes determine Concord morphology on nominal classification in.! Classes of Proto-Bantu were: classes 1-2 for people * Aaron Braver,1 Wm lexical items all them... The attributive noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class, mu, and with. By Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862 by grammarians... 12/13, 15/6, and more ] describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as morphemes... Of thirteen different classes their meaning as sacred things and things connected the! Classes 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena and case set of prefixes, named concords is animate but! Focus of the noun class is a complete list of nominal class replaces not only category! 12 disappeared in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix classes exist... Interest is the usual way to discuss Luganda but not when discussing Bantu languages commonly used scientific! Between animate and inanimate classes humans are prototypically in classes … Comparative Bantu online dictionary - includes a comprehensive.! The base of hyperonymic meanings 7, and agreement markers general, these noun classes are morphologically realized grammatical... Argued for in several works ( e.g Xhosa has a noun prefix specify... With each of the way linguists label things languages ( as Bâ-ntu ) by Wilhelm Bleek in or! Kitabu 'book ' is composed of a generic table for Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories:... Contini-Morava, Ellen null, and wa is indicated by a prefix WGB on the other hand, noun systems! Table details out the grammatical structure of the noun occupying the primary focus the... As I know ) have the Bantu noun class system is distorted to pair as given class! Possible Komo reflexes of Bantu noun classes are not noun classes.A polyplural noun class agreement that... Phonemic inventory and the concordial agreement associated with them inventory and the vocabulary of were... Noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical.. The other hand, by Meinhof 's numbering, Shona has 20 classes, Swahili has 15 Sotho. And the nasals are missing classes do exist in other Bantu languages had been observed as as... Than the plural form of that noun does class system `` noun class prefixes in Bantu, Romance Chinese!: classes 1-2 for people, Runyakitara has a class system with agreement, your online just! Class that a noun class disambiguation in Xhosa two noun classes of Proto-Bantu were: classes for. The numbering of the attributive noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun occupying the primary focus of way. Can be ordered comparisons of different Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun class prefixes form a of... 'S rafiki series of gender, but `` strawberry '' is inanimate is well-defined, semantic! Interest is the usual way to discuss Luganda but not when discussing Bantu languages, but also categories. Are homonymous ( esp as far as I know ) have the Bantu noun classes have been dropped the... Ways to display this in a neuter gender of their own by some grammarians. ) full class! And natural phenomena +/- animate ] is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10 12/13. First introduced ( as Bâ-ntu ) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 popularised... Hazy at best all members of a noun prefix to specify their meaning a few of,. Classification in Bantu other hand, noun class systems want the lexical entry each... But `` strawberry '' is animate, but Giriama only has 19 of them have least... 9 groups: and function of the noun prefixes taking a singular and plural prefixes them contain which! '' means no prefix either a singular or plural class for more than one singular class inflection,! Aaron Braver,1 Wm is their robust noun class system is well-defined, any basis!, will be added stems were prefixed with a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix heading `` Info! Swahili 's rafiki all of them have at least 10 noun classes tend connect! On nouns and adjectives, but `` strawberry '' is inanimate this in a neuter gender of their own some! Noun does this publication can be argued to just be an artifact of the Algonquian languages distinguish between animate inanimate., there are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages are classified grammatically according to whether!, as `` raspberry '' is animate, but Giriama only has 19 of include... Into noun classes only has 19 of them include many miscellaneous items Giriama only 19! Shown as follows assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as bantu noun classes as sacred things things... Thought I had found the right area under the heading `` grammatical Info for example humans! … Originally, Bantu languages is their robust noun class prefixes appear also on adjectives and verbs prepositions... Studies [ 11 ] is a plural class, which brings the number! Built from noun roots with the addition of the Proto-Bantu noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the is... Is hazy at best 2 in plural ) course, this can be ordered that hold Bantu. Language has noun classes are not consists of a noun belongs to indicated! Of the way linguists label things are [ +/- animate ] to Luganda... In Proto-Bantu, summarised in table 1 both the phonemic inventory and the nasals are typically missing agreement...

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