joseph smith accomplishments

Smith's death resulted in a succession crisis. He supported capital punishment but opposed hanging, preferring execution by firing squad or beheading. Smith said he experienced a series of visions, including one in 1820 during which he saw "two personages" (whom he eventually described as God the Father and Jesus Christ), and another in 1823 in which an angel directed him to a buried book of golden plates inscribed with a Judeo-Christian history of an ancient American civilization. Until the 1840s, however, Smith's accounts of the vision were largely unknown to most Mormons,[31] and Smith himself may have originally considered it a personal conversion. He died shortly after hitting the ground, but was shot several more times before the mob dispersed. harvtxt error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFNewellAvery1994 (. [295], In April 1841, Smith wed Louisa Beaman. [98] As a result, the Latter Day Saints in Kirtland suffered intense pressure from debt collectors and severe price volatility. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith. [46] After they ransacked places where they believed the plates could be hidden, Smith decided to leave Palmyra. [180] Many modern biographers disagree with these ideas. He described the revelatory process as having "pure Intelligence" flowing into him. However, several fragments were rediscovered in the 1960s, were translated by Egyptologists, and were determined to be part of the Book of Breathing with no connection to Abraham. [134], In 1841, Smith began revealing the doctrine of plural marriage to a few of his closest male associates, including Bennett, who used it as an excuse to seduce numerous women wed and unwed. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [195] Many members of these smaller groups, including most of Smith's family, eventually coalesced in 1860 under the leadership of Joseph Smith III and formed what was known for more than a century as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (now the Community of Christ), which now has about 250,000 members. Joseph Smith was notable among religious figures for claiming to receive revelations and to translate ancient religious texts. [314] Smith taught that this kingdom would be governed by theocratic principles, but that it would also be multidenominational and democratic, so long as the people chose wisely. [106] Around June 1838, recent convert Sampson Avard formed a covert organization called the Danites to intimidate Mormon dissenters and oppose anti-Mormon militia units. "[211], The Book of Mormon has been called the longest and most complex of Smith's revelations. Moses is told in this account that God made the Earth and heavens to bring humans to eternal life. He had no other wife but me; nor did he to my knowledge ever have". Smith introduced baptism for the dead in 1840, and in 1841, construction began on the Nauvoo Temple as a place for recovering lost ancient knowledge. [34] Smith reported that during the next four years, he made annual visits to the hill, but, until the fourth and final visit, each time he returned without the plates. During his presidential campaign of 1844, he proposed ending slavery by 1850 and compensating slaveholders for their loss. [85] As a military endeavor, the expedition was a failure; the men were outnumbered and suffered from dissension and a cholera outbreak. [179] Believers tend to focus on his achievements and religious teachings, deemphasizing his personal defects, while detractors focus on his mistakes, legal troubles, and controversial doctrines. When Smith proposed marriage, Emma's father, Isaac Hale objected, primarily because he believed Smith had no means to support Emma. [81], In Jackson County, existing Missouri residents resented the Mormon newcomers for both political and religious reasons. Justifying the practice of polygamy by reference to the precedent of Abraham, the first of the Hebrew patriarchs, Smith was “sealed” (the ceremony that binds men and women in marriage for eternity) to about 30 wives, though no known children came from these unions. [197] In 1841, Don Carlos, who had been born a year earlier, died of malaria. Among the more prominent features of the terrain were the Indian mounds containing the skeletons of long-dead warriors. [274] He also envisioned that the theocratic institutions he established would have a role in the worldwide political organization of the Millennium. W hen Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon church, received a revelation in about 1831 in which he was commanded by God to break the law and … For instance, in the early 1830s, he temporarily instituted a form of religious communism, called the United Order, that required Latter Day Saints to give all their property to the church, which was divided among the faithful. On a winter day in January 1842, Joseph Smith became reflective. [232] While many changes involved straightening out seeming contradictions or making small clarifications, other changes added large "lost" portions to the text. [253], Before 1832, most of Smith's revelations dealt with establishing the church, gathering his followers, and building the City of Zion. [247] Another 1832 revelation "on Priesthood" was the first to explain priesthood doctrine. The purpose of the temple rituals was to give people the knowledge they needed to enter God’s presence and to become like God. [272] Though Smith did not claim exclusive prophethood, an early revelation designated him as the only prophet allowed to issue commandments "as Moses". Completing the work in less than 90 days, he published it in March 1830 as a 588-page volume called the Book of Mormon. He decided to list in the Book of the Law of the Lord the names of those “faithful few” followers who had stood by him since the beginnings of his ministry—“pure and holy friends, who are faithful, just, and true, and whose hearts fail not” (History of the Church, 5:107; hereafter HC). [21][22] Smith's parents disagreed about religion, but the family was caught up in this excitement. [288], Smith taught that the highest level of exaltation could be achieved through "plural marriage" (polygamy), which was the ultimate manifestation of this New and Everlasting Covenant. Founded in 1830 by the then twenty-four year old Joseph Smith, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (as it is formally named) has emerged from relative insularity during the mid-twentieth century to become a world-wide movement now numbering nine million members. Term ended by removal of apostleship; was later excommunicated. [136], The early Nauvoo years were a period of doctrinal innovation. This living biography of Joseph Smith memorializes Joseph's life with photos and stories about him and the Smith's family history and genealogy. As of 2013[update], members of the denominations originating from Smith's teachings number approximately 16.3 million. [157] The paper decried Smith's new "doctrines of many Gods", alluded to Smith's theocratic aspirations, and called for a repeal of the Nauvoo city charter. 1. [269], Smith's teachings were rooted in dispensational restorationism. Attracting converts from Europe as well as the United States, Nauvoo grew to rival Chicago as the largest city in the state. [230], Smith said that in June 1830, he received a "revelation of Moses" in which Moses saw "the world and the ends thereof" and asked God questions about the purpose of creation and man's relationship to God. "Lieutenant General" Smith and "Major General" Bennett became its commanders, thereby controlling by far the largest body of armed men in Illinois. He spent much of his free time reading books on various subjects so he could educate himself. In 1842, Emma gave birth to a stillborn son. [103] Smith encouraged the settlement of land outside Caldwell County, instituting a settlement in Adam-ondi-Ahman, in Daviess County. [185] Smith had proposed several ways to choose his successor, but had never clarified his preference. [64] He was acquitted, but soon both he and Cowdery fled to Colesville to escape a gathering mob. Officials in Carthage responded by mobilizing their small detachment of the state militia, and Governor Thomas Ford appeared, threatening to raise a larger militia unless Smith and the Nauvoo city council surrendered themselves. [280], Smith taught that the High Priesthood's endowment of heavenly power included the sealing powers of Elijah, allowing High Priests to effect binding consequences in the afterlife. The two were taken to Carthage, the county seat, for a hearing, and, while imprisoned, they were shot by a mob on June 27, 1844. 2. [The Holy Spirit] may give you sudden strokes of ideas, so that by noticing it, you may find it fulfilled the same day or soon; those things that were presented unto your minds by the Spirit of God, will come to pass. In the narrative, Enoch speaks with God, receives a prophetic calling, and eventually builds a city of Zion so righteous that it was taken to heaven. [141] Zion also became less a refuge from an impending tribulation than a great building project. [259] Nevertheless, spirits could not experience a "fullness of joy" unless joined with corporeal bodies, according to Smith. Soon after, on April 6, 1830, Smith and his followers formally organized the Church of Christ, and small branches were established in Palmyra, Fayette, and Colesville, New York. [57] When the narrative described an institutional church and a requirement for baptism, Smith and Cowdery baptized each other. Smith, Lucy Mack. [241], According to Parley P. Pratt, Smith dictated revelations orally, and they were recorded by a scribe without revisions or corrections. [315], the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, This article is about the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. [239] The LDS Church has proposed that Smith might have been inspired by the papyri rather than have been translating them literally,[240] but prominent Egyptologists note that Smith copied characters from the scrolls and was specific about their meaning. Members of the church, known as Saints, gathered first at Independence, Missouri, on the western edge of American settlement. [60] These men, known collectively as the Three Witnesses, signed a statement stating that they had been shown the golden plates by an angel, and that the voice of God had confirmed the truth of their translation. Religious differences within the family and over religious revivals in the Palmyra area left Smith perplexed about where to find a church. They first gathered in Kirtland, Ohio, and established an outpost in Independence, Missouri, which was intended to be Zion's "center place". In 1835 Smith published the first 65 revelations in a volume titled the Book of Commandments, later called the Doctrine and Covenants. [312] However, he opposed baptizing them without permission of their masters, and he opposed interracial marriage. According to Smith’s own account, he had a vision from God when he was fourteen years old. [132] The charter also authorized the Nauvoo Legion, an autonomous militia whose actions were limited only by state and federal constitutions. [252] Smith's last revelation, on the "New and Everlasting Covenant", was recorded in 1843, and dealt with the theology of family, the doctrine of sealing, and plural marriage. Smith said that this angel revealed the location of a buried book made of golden plates, as well as other artifacts, including a breastplate and a set of interpreters composed of two seer stones set in a frame, which had been hidden in a hill near his home. [307], Smith favored a strong central bank and high tariffs to protect American business and agriculture. [43] This time, he said he successfully retrieved the plates. Smith, Joseph, Jr. [117] Smith was immediately brought before a military court, accused of treason, and sentenced to be executed the next morning; Alexander Doniphan, who was Smith's former attorney and a brigadier general in the Missouri militia, refused to carry out the order. He was a prophet of God and is revered by millions of people around the world, despite his humble beginnings. Emma believed in her husband’s calling but could not abide additional wives. The Book of Mormon told the 1,000-year history of the Israelites, who were led from Jerusalem to a promised land in the Western Hemisphere. [74] Smith had promised church elders that in Kirtland they would receive an endowment of heavenly power, and at the June 1831 general conference, he introduced the greater authority of a High ("Melchizedek") Priesthood to the church hierarchy. "The keys of the kingdom," he wrote, "have not been taken away from us". Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. [161], Destruction of the newspaper provoked a strident call to arms from Thomas C. Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal and longtime critic of Smith. Historian’s Office, History of the Church, 1839–ca. Smith's followers view it as a companion to the Bible and an additional witness of Christ, akin to a large apocryphal work. In 1838, facing expulsion for a third time, Smith tried to defend the church with arms. His collection of drawings were bought for George III of Great Britain and form a nucleus of the Royal Collection of drawings in the Print Room at Windsor … CR 100 102, boxes 1–7. [32], According to his later accounts, Smith was visited by an angel named Moroni, while praying one night in 1823. [266] In Smith's cosmology, those who became gods would reign, unified in purpose and will, leading spirits of lesser capacity to share immortality and eternal life. [219] Modern historian Fawn Brodie has called the Book of Mormon a response to pressing cultural and environmental issues of Smith's times, saying that Smith composed the Book of Mormon drawing from scraps of information available to him. The book closes when Mormon's son, Moroni, finishes engraving and buries the records written on the golden plates. [41] Smith and Emma eloped and married on January 18, 1827, after which the couple began boarding with Smith's parents in Manchester. [70] Rigdon soon visited New York and quickly became Smith's primary assistant. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, List of sects in the Latter Day Saint movement, Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Freemasonry and the Latter Day Saint movement, "Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841–46: A Preliminary Demographic Report", "A Trajectory of Plurality: An Overview of Joseph Smith's Thirty-three Plural Wives", "Gospel Topics: Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo", "Joseph Smith DNA Revealed: New Clues from the Prophet's Genes – FairMormon", "An Overview of the Burned-Over District by John H. Martin", "Joseph Smith's Experience of a Methodist "Camp-Meeting" in 1820", 10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.0802307, "Smith, Joseph: Legal Trials of Joseph Smith", "A Brief History of the Smith Family Nauvoo Cemetery", "Joseph Smith, Brigham Young rank first and third in magazine's list of significant religious figures", Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite), "Facts and Statistics: Worldwide Statistics", "DNA tests rule out 2 as Smith descendants: Scientific advances prove no genetic link", "Reconstructing the Y-Chromosome of Joseph Smith, Jr.: Genealogical Applications", "Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham", "Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham: A Response", "The Significance of Joseph Smith's "First Vision" in Mormon Thought", "The Lion and the Lady: Brigham Young and Emma Smith", "The King Follett Discourse: A Newly Amalgamated Text", The History of Joseph Smith by His Mother, Official LDS Church site about Joseph Smith, List of Reorganized Restorationist churches, Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) history, Doctrine and Covenants (Book of Commandments), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joseph_Smith&oldid=1000215137, Candidates in the 1844 United States presidential election, Apostles of the Church of Christ (Latter Day Saints), Latter Day Saint missionaries in the United States, Prophet-Presidents of the Community of Christ, Tarring and feathering in the United States, Victims of religiously motivated violence in the United States, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Latter Day Saint biography Infobox with missing parameters, Pages using infobox Latter Day Saint biography with unsupported parameters, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 03:55. By 1838, Smith had abandoned plans to redeem Zion in Jackson County, and after Smith and Rigdon arrived in Missouri, the town of Far West became the new "Zion". Sometimes the revelations gave practical instructions; others explained the nature of heaven or the responsibilities of the priesthood. Joseph Smith did not have a formal education, but he was self-taught and taught by family members how to read, write, and do basic mathematics. [73] Smith brought the Kirtland congregation under his own authority and tamed these outbursts. [159], Fearing the newspaper would bring the countryside down on the Mormons, the Nauvoo city council declared the Expositor a public nuisance and ordered the Nauvoo Legion to destroy the press. [223] Later, however, he is said to have used a chocolate-colored stone he had found in 1822 that he had used previously for treasure hunting. [210] The revelation was written as if God were talking rather than as a declaration mediated through Smith; and subsequent revelations assumed a similar authoritative style, often opening with words such as "Hearken O ye people which profess my name, saith the Lord your God. [256] For instance, the doctrines of baptism for the dead and the nature of God were introduced in sermons, and one of Smith's most famed statements about there being "no such thing as immaterial matter" was recorded from a casual conversation with a Methodist preacher.

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