pennsylvania german language

[11], Most of the Pennsylvania Dutch have roots going much further back in the Palatinate. The Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in German and Russian. Dei Wille loss gedu sei,, Pennsylvania German Words and Phrases Gothic, Pennsylvania German, Swiss German (Chur dialect), Copyright © 1998–2021 Simon Ager | Email: | Hosted by Kualo,, Download an alphabet chart for Pennsylvania German,, Bite Size Languages - learn languages quickly, This orthography is based on the Buffington-Barba system Complete Bible. Pennsylvania German is a variety of German spoken by about Old English, at the beginning of words and the second and the ends of words. [39], Muhlenberg was sent by the Lutheran bishops in Germany, and he always insisted on strict conformity to Lutheran dogma. Frederick Muhlenberg (1750–1801), a Lutheran pastor, became a major patriot and politician, rising to be elected as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. Grubb, Farley. The word Deitsch corresponds with the High German word Deutsch (in standard German), meaning "German", and is how the first settlers would have described themselves in the principal southern German dialect spoken: Palatine German. Search PA Dutch. Unsah Faddah im Himmel, Elfdalian, Icelandic, The First PA Dutch Online Dictionary. Note: all links on this site to, and are affiliate links. The Pennsylvania Dutch (also called Pennsylvania Germans or Pennsylvania Deutsch) are descendants of early German immigrants to Pennsylvania. consonant, and at in -er and -ar endings, which are pronounced Alsatian, English is the primary language spoken in Pennsylvania. In the German doctoral program, students may pursue a concentration in German Literature and Culture or in German Linguistics and Applied Linguistics. 66 open jobs for German language in Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch), also referred to as the Pennsylvania Germans, are a cultural group formed through those who emigrated primarily from the territory in Europe now partly within modern-day Germany (mainly from Palatinate, Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland), but also from the Netherlands, Switzerland and today France (Alsace-Lorraine) travelling down the river Rhine to the sea ports. un di hallichkeit in ayvichkeit. Zeelandic, Languages written with the Latin alphabet. Numbers | [6], After the Second World War, use of Pennsylvania German virtually died out in favor of English, except among the more insular and tradition-bound Anabaptists, such as the Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites. Tower of Babeleval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'omniglot_com-box-4','ezslot_1',122,'0','0'])); Information about Pennsylvania German Pennsylvania German This is the main category of the Pennsylvania German language. The extensive Steeves clan descends from this group. For the language, see, "Deitsch" redirects here. Dutch or Dutch, which probably comes from the native name "Pennsylvania German" redirects here. Värmlandic, Glosbe is a collaborative project and every one can add (and remove) translations. [12], The devastation of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) and the wars between the German principalities and France caused some of the immigration of Germans to America from the Rhine area. American Norwegian, [20] Henry Miller, an immigrant from Germany of Swiss ancestry, published an early German translation of the Declaration of Independence (1776) in his newspaper Philadelphische Staatsbote. and in Ontario in Canada. Virginia and North Carolina in the late 17th and early 18th Ripuarian, Other settlers followed mostly from Pennsylvania typically by Conestoga wagons. The wars in the colonies and Europe combined with rising land prices made it difficult to attract German immigrants, especially those with families., German-Pennsylvanian Association There are two spelling systems for the written form of Pennsylvania German. Simply log in and add new translation. Listen Jesus Film. Fewer of the Pennsylvania Dutch settled in what would later become the Greater Toronto Area in areas that would later be the towns of Altona, Ontario, Pickering, Ontario and especially Markham Village, Ontario and Stouffville, Ontario. Stellingwarfs, The Anabaptist religions promoted a simple life-style, and their adherents were known as Plain people or Plain Dutch. West Jutlandic, Amen. Frisian (Saterland), [31] Peter Reesor and brother-in-law Abraham Stouffer were higher profile settlers in Markham and Stouffville. William Berczy, a German entrepreneur and artist, had settled in upstate New York and in May 1794, he was able to obtain 64,000 acres in Markham Township, near the current city of Toronto, Ontario. [40] The Moravians settled Bethlehem and nearby areas and established schools for Native Americans.[36]. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'omniglot_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_0',141,'0','0'])); There are two main ways to write Pennsylvania German: one is un die Hallichkeit in Ewichkeit. It makes our dictionary English Pennsylvania German real, as it is created by native speakers people, that uses language for every day. Berczy arrived with approximately 190 German families from Pennsylvania and settled here. [14], This group of Mennonites was organized by Francis Daniel Pastorius, an agent for a land purchasing company based in Frankfurt am Main. [13] None of the Frankfurt Company ever came to Pennsylvania except Pastorius himself, but 13 Krefeld German (South Guelderish-speaking) Mennonite families arrived on October 6, 1683, in Philadelphia. Un fagebb unsah shulda, on earth as it is in heaven. English, Un fiehr uns net in die Versuchung, Swiss German (Lucerne dialect), JHU Press, 2006, p.3-4. vi miah dee fagevva vo uns shuldich sinn. Swiss German, Swiss German (Basel dialect), Pennsylvania Dutch, sometimes referred to as Pennsylvania German, is a language used by the Amish and Mennonites. Get a detailed look at the language, from population to dialects and usage. Bavarian, Limburgish, Dei Reich loss komme. Mark L. Louden: Pennsylvania Dutch: The Story of an American Language. John B. Stoudt "The German Press in Pennsylvania and the American Revolution". [10] For example, some Amish and Mennonites came to the Palatinate and surrounding areas from the German-speaking part of Switzerland, where, as Anabaptists, they were persecuted, and so their stay in the Palatinate was of limited duration. They became farmers and used intensive German farming techniques that proved highly productive. Dei villa loss gedu sei, First, Pennsylvania Dutch has absolutely nothing to do with Dutch. Bronner, Simon J. and Joshua R. Brown, eds. h is not pronunced in the middle and at the end of words, but lengthens the preceding vowel. Arcadia Publishing, 2004, p.16. Frisian (North - Sylt), If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or by contributing in other ways. So by clicking on these links you can help to support this site. Phrases | Part of the Society’s original mission when it was founded over 250 years ago was to help German-speaking immigrants learn English; now, the language program has transformed into a place where English speakers learn German. I have been trying to find a dictionary with the German/Russian dialect and finally found one with the help of Erik Wesner through Norwegian, It’s spoken in everyday conversation as the primary language of the home, business, and social interaction. derived is Palatinate German, and there is still some mutually Wymysorys, Search About Download Events Store Contact. Värmlandic, in urban areas of Pennsylvania, and after the Second World War And lead us not into temptation Other Slavic languages offered include Ukrainian and Polish. Dunk is the most widely used contribution Pennsylvania German (also known as Pennsylvania Dutch, with the word Dutch here being influenced by deitsch, meaning "German") has made to the English language. Fer dei is es Reich, die Graft, The Pennsylvania German Language is still preserved among the descendants of the Pennsylvania Dutch. Roeber, A. G. "In German Ways? [22], After the American Revolution, John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, invited Americans, including Mennonites and German Baptist Brethren, to settle in British North American territory and offered tracts of land to immigrant groups. Dutch, which publishes poetry and prose in Pennsylvania German, and which is Map Notes. Lorraine in France, and Switzerland. Download an alphabet chart for Pennsylvania German (Excel), Hear how to pronunce the Pennsylvania German / Dutch alphabet. Our Father who art in heaven, These settlers originally came from German-speaking areas of Europe and spoke a dialect of German … It enables you to type almost any language that uses the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, and is free. Faroese, Amish speak a dialect called Pennsylvania Dutch or Pennsylvania German. Old English, j and q are only is loanwords from English, r is not pronunced when preceded by a and followed by a Faroese, Pennsylvania German is a High German language., Afrikaans, So you want to learn to speak Pennsylvania German, also known as Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvania Deitsh, PA-German. Audio Bible. French expansionism forced many Palatines to flee as refugees. However it is still Luxembourgish, Shetland(ic), Danish, By 1697 the war came to a close with the Treaty of Ryswick, now Rijswijk in the Netherlands, and the Palatinate remained free of French control. About 350,000 people speak the dialect. Pennsylvania German, also called (misleadingly) Pennsylvania Dutch, 17th- and 18th-century German-speaking settlers in Pennsylvania and their descendants. Hallowed be thy name. A more apt name for the language is Pennsylvania German. Scots, Hunsrik, Germantown included not only Mennonites but also Quakers. The site is coupled with a biannual newspaper of the same name, apparently the only regular Pennsylvania German language publication. Westrobothnian, [17] The majority originated in what is today southwestern Germany, i.e., Rhineland-Palatinate[17] and Baden-Württemberg; other prominent groups were Alsatians, Dutch, French Huguenots (French Protestants), Moravians from Bohemia and Moravia and Germans from Switzerland. The dialect is generally not written. A number of German cultural practices continue to this day, and German Americans remain the largest ancestry group claimed in Pennsylvania by people in the census. Where letters have two pronunciations, the first is used A bit of background on the dialect, from the Hiwwe wie Driwwe site: In North […] Others later moved to other locations in the general area, including a hamlet they founded, German Mills, Ontario, named for its grist mill; that community is now called Thornhill, Ontario), in the township that is now part of York Region. Swedish, Frisian (North - Bökingharde), Newman, George F., Newman, Dieter E. (2003). McMurry, Sally, and Nancy Van Dolsen, eds. Pennsylvania German/Dutch, They were joined by eight more Dutch-speaking families from Hamburg-Altona in 1700 and five German-speaking families from the Palatinate in 1707. Map Notes. This workbook is designed to help you achieve that goal. Search German language jobs in Pennsylvania with company ratings & salaries. Information about Pennsylvania German | Flemish (West), Scots, eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'omniglot_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',147,'0','0'])); If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. So you want to learn to speak Pennsylvania German, also known as Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvania Deitsh, PA-German. They are made up of a range of religious groups including Amish , Mennonite-Lutheran, German Reformed, Moravian, and others. uf di eaht vi im Himmel. Problems and Potentials of Eighteenth-Century German Social and Emigration History", This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 11:19. The differences between the two approaches led to permanent impasse between Lutherans and Moravians, especially after a December 1742 meeting in Philadelphia. Mòcheno, Much of the colloquial speech of popular Pennsylvania Dutch phrases is commonly said to be \"Dutchie-fied English\" although it’s not derived from the Dutch language, but rather from German, the German word for which is Deutsch. For those that have three pronunciations the second is used in 2. Bavarian, 3 Yugoslav Americans are the American people from the former Yugoslavia. This was in contrast to the Fancy Dutch, who tended to assimilate more easily into the American mainstream. Give us this day our daily bread. The 17 Pennsylvania German Groundhog Lodges in the eastern part of our state are again sponsoring and supporting the schools within our areas for the purpose of teaching the language of our forefathers, Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania Dutch, to those who have the desire to learn the language. 5 Disputed; Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans. Emigrating from southern Germany (Palatinate, Bavaria, Saxony, etc.) Like most other US states, Spanish is also widely spoken. dei Naame loss heilich sei, Each point represents a … [16], Another wave of settlers from Germany, which would eventually coalesce to form a large part of the Pennsylvania Dutch, arrived between 1727 and 1775; some 65,000 Germans landed in Philadelphia in that era and others landed at other ports. Cimbrian, Frisian (West), Limburgish, Alsatian, [34][35] Calvinist Palatines and several other religions to a lesser extent were also represented.[36][37]. Information about Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvania German has no descendants or varieties listed in Wiktionary's language data modules. Unser Vadder im Himmel, Gottscheerish, Eerdmans Publishing, 2007, p. 606. for the language: Deitsch. Icelandic, Low Saxon, The term is more properly "Pennsylvania German" because the so-called Pennsylvania Dutch have nothing to do with Holland, the Netherlands, or the Dutch language. 250,000 mainly in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana in the USA, Pennsylfaanisch Deitsch Words & Phrases If you’re wondering what the Pennsylvania Dutch dialect sounds like click here to hear it spoken by a non-Amish Deitscher woman from Northumberland County, PA. For a translation of what she is saying click here. [32][33] Other settlers of that era were of the Moravian Church while a few were Seventh Day Baptists. [8] Some Pennsylvania Dutch live in the historically Pennsylvania Dutch-speaking areas of Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. Many scholars and some speakers of the language call it Pennsylvania German in order to emphasize its historical connection with German rather … There is a Pennsylvania German newspaper, Hiwwe wie Driwwe, "German Immigration to Pennsylvania, 1709 to 1820". Most of these settlers emigrated in the 17th and 18th centuries to America and spoke unique dialects within the German language family, but it is through their cross-dialogue interaction and what was retained by subsequent generations that a hybrid dialect emerged, known as Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania Dutch, which has resonance to this day. [18][19], The Pennsylvania Dutch composed nearly half of the population of Pennsylvania and, except for the nonviolent Anabaptists, generally supported the Patriot cause in the American Revolution. the middle of words and the third at the ends. Dei Reich loss kumma. Farley Grubb, "German Immigration to Pennsylvania, 1709 to 1820". For the surname, see, Immigrants from the Palatinate of the Rhine. Pennsylvania … [29][25][30], From 1800 to the 1830s, some Pennsylvania Dutch Mennonites in Upstate New York and Pennsylvania moved north to Canada, primarily to the area that would become Cambridge, Ontario, Kitchener, Ontario/Waterloo, Ontario and St. Jacobs, Ontario/Elmira, Ontario/Listowel, Ontario in Waterloo County, Ontario. In many Mennonite and Amish households, both English and Pennsylvania Dutch (or Deitsch) is spoken. Old Norse, French forces devastated all major cities of the region, including Cologne. Dr. Michael Werner passes on a link to the Pennsylvania German website Hiwwe wie Driwwe (‘Over here as over there’). [25][26] Some still live in the area around Markham, Ontario[27][28] and particularly in the northern areas of the current Waterloo Region. Vowels in the first row are short; those in the second row are long. This workbook is designed to help you achieve that goal. Today, the Pennsylvania Dutch language is mostly spoken by Old Order Mennonites. Miller often wrote about Swiss history and myth, such as the William Tell legend, to provide a context for patriot support in the conflict with Britain.[21]. Hughes Oliphant Old: The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures in the Worship of the Christian Church, Volume 6: The Modern Age. Language: German, Pennsylvania Find language . avvah hald uns fu'm eevila. Canadischer familien Calender fuer das Jahr 1892 (1892) (14597333339).jpg 2,960 × 2,164; 1.1 MB Un fiah uns naett in di fasuchung, uff die Erd wie im Himmel. and the glory, For ever and ever. [ɑ]. Settlement started in 1800 by Joseph Schoerg and Samuel Betzner, Jr. (brothers-in-law), Mennonites, from Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Low German, The war began in 1688 as Louis XIV laid claim to the Electorate of the Palatinate. The largest wave of German immigration to Pennsylvania occurred during the years 1749-1754 but tapered off during the French and Indian Wars and after the American Revolution. Westrobothnian (Piteå), [27][28], The immigrants of the 1600s and 1700s who were known as the Pennsylvania Dutch included Mennonites, Swiss Brethren (also called Mennonites by the locals) and Amish but also Anabaptist-Pietists such as German Baptist Brethren and those who belonged to German Lutheran or German Reformed Church congregations. The Pennsylvania Dutch maintained numerous religious affiliations, with the greatest number being Lutheran or German Reformed, but also with many Anabaptists, including Mennonites, Amish, and Brethren. Pennsylvania. Unser deeglich Brot gebb uns heit, Mark L. Louden: Pennsylvania Dutch: The Story of an American Language. Pennsylvania German (Deitsch; also called Pennsylvania Dutch) is a dialect of German spoken in the United States and Canada.Most speakers of Pennsylvania German are members of the Amish or Mennonite communities. Many of the pioneers arriving from Pennsylvania after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000 acre section established by a group of Mennonites from Lancaster County Pennsylvania, called the German Company Lands.[29][25]. [23][24] This resulted in communities of Pennsylvania Dutch speakers' emigrating to Canada, many to the area called the German Company Tract, a subset of land within the Haldimand Tract, in the Township of Waterloo, which later became Waterloo County, Ontario. communities. An early group, mainly from the Roxborough-Germantown area of Pennsylvania, emigrated to then colonial Nova Scotia in 1766 and founded the Township of Monckton, site of present day Moncton, New Brunswick. Omniglot is how I make my living. The Germans from Russian settled in North Dakota in the 1800's with a mix of German and Russian language. intelligibility between these varieties. dei nohma loss heilich sei, [5] The continued use of "Pennsylvania Dutch" was strengthened by the Pennsylvania Dutch in the 19th century as a way of distinguishing themselves from later (post 1830) waves of German immigrants to the United States, with the Pennsylvania Dutch referring to themselves as Deitsche and to Germans as Deitschlenner ("Germany-ers", compare Deutschland-er) whom they saw as a related but distinct group. Danish, Useful Pennsylvania German phrases A collection of useful phrases in Pennsylvania German / Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch), a variety of Pennsylvania German spoken in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana in the USA, and in Ontario in Canada He organized the Ministerium of Pennsylvania in 1748, set out the standard organizational format for new churches and helped shape Lutheran liturgy. published twice a year. Listen. German, Fa dei is es Reich, di graft, Members of this group founded the borough of Germantown, in northwest Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, in 1683. Population of Groups Speaking 270,000 People Groups Speaking as Primary Language. as we forgive those who trespass against us. Unsah tayklich broht gebb uns heit, Click here to hear the dialect spoken by Douglas Madenford in 2017. Not all were Mennonites; some were Brethren or Quakers, for example. Cimbrian, Over 60% of the immigrants who arrived in Pennsylvania from Germany or Switzerland in the 1700s and 1800s were Lutherans and they maintained good relations with those of the German Reformed Church. but deliver us from evil. This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. A Very Brief Introduction to the Pennsylvania German Language Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch, Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania Dutch in English, is a dialect of High German that is related to dialects spoken in the ancestral home of the Pennsylvania Germans in the Rhineland-Palatinate and also contains some elements of other southwestern German and Swiss dialects. German, While most Amish and Old Order Mennonites are of Swiss ancestry, nearly all speak Pennsylvania Dutch, an American language that developed in rural areas of southeastern and central Pennsylvania during the 18th century. The language is also known as Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Dutch is an American language that developed from the immigration of German speakers to colonial Pennsylvania. 4 Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Turkey span the conventional boundary between Europe and Asia. JHU Press, 2006, p.2. Stellingwarfs, Muhlenberg's view of church unity was in direct opposition to Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf's Moravian approach, with its goal of uniting various Pennsylvania German religious groups under a less rigid "Congregation of God in the Spirit". [2][3][4] Ultimately, the terms Deitsch, Dutch, Diets and Deutsch are all cognates of the Proto-Germanic word *þiudiskaz meaning "popular" or "of the people". Un vergebb unser Schulde, centuries with immigrants from southern Germany, Alsace and For thine is the kingdom, the power It is a German dialect which in its everyday usage often incorporates English words. awwer hald uns vum ewile. [7], The Pennsylvania Dutch live primarily in Southeastern and in Pennsylvania Dutch Country, a large area that includes South Central Pennsylvania, in the area stretching in an arc from Bethlehem and Allentown through Reading, Lebanon, and Lancaster to York and Chambersburg. However, by 1702, the War of the Spanish Succession began, lasting until 1713. Afrikaans, Because so many Amish initially settled in Pennsylvania, they and their language are often referred to as “Pennsylvania Dutch.” Despite its name, this language is actually a hybrid of English and German -- the word “Dutch” is a corruption of the word “Deutsch,” the German word for “German.” Elfdalian, Some members of the two communities formed the Markham-Waterloo Mennonite Conference. Media in category "Pennsylvania German language" The following 20 files are in this category, out of 20 total. Frisian (West), Luxembourgish, Irwin Richman: The Pennsylvania Dutch Country. English (British), based on Standard German orthography. Pennsylvania German is a variety of German spoken by about 250,000 mainly in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana in the USA, and in Ontario in Canada. [13] They settled on land sold to them by William Penn. Amen. During the War of the Grand Alliance (1689–97), French troops pillaged the Palatinate, forcing many Germans to flee. [1], The word "Dutch" in "Pennsylvania Dutch" comes from the Pennsylvania German endonym Deitsch, which means "Pennsylvania Dutch / German" or "German". The language is also known as Pennsylvania Dutch or Dutch, which probably comes from the native name for the language: Deitsch., Articles and recordings in Pennsylvania German Henry Muhlenberg (1711–1787) founded the Lutheran Church in America. Dutch, Swedish, The Endangered Languages Project is a collaborative online platform for sharing knowledge and resources for endangered languages. Help us in creating the largest English-Pennsylvania German dictionary online. The word Deitsch corresponds with the High German word Deutsch (in standard German), meanin… Not Available Gospel Recordings. [9], Many Pennsylvania Dutch were descendants of refugees who had left religious persecution in the Netherlands and the Palatinate of the German Rhine. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'omniglot_com-box-3','ezslot_2',148,'0','0'])); The language came to the states of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Geographic Distribution Official Language in nowhere Pennsylvania German General Information Native name:Deitsch Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch Language family:Indo-European Germanic West Germanic High German West Central German Rhine Franconian Palatine German Speakers First language:130,000 - 350,000 You want to learn Pennsylvania German? [15], In 1723, some 33 Palatine families, dissatisfied under Governor Hunter's rule, migrated from Schoharie, New York, along the Susquehanna River to Tulpehocken, Berks County, Pennsylvania, where other Palatines had settled. Yiddish, Hiwwe wie Driwwe - Die Pennsylvanisch-Deitsch Zeiding Much to my surprise the Pennsylvania Dutch have the same dialect. [38] The two groups founded Franklin College (now Franklin & Marshall College) in 1787. Gothic, Another wave from Germany arrived 1749-1754. Thy kingdom come., Pennsylvania German Society Other religions were also represented by the late 1700s, in smaller numbers. Norwegian, A language profile for German, Pennsylvania. Frisian (North), Samuel R. Zeiser, "Moravians and Lutherans: Getting beyond the Zinzendorf-Muhlenberg Impasse", "Pennsylvania's Crazy Quilt of German Religious Groups", "American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates", "PA Amish Lifestyle - How the community of Amish in PA live today", "Chapter Two - The History Of The German Immigration To America - The Brobst Chronicles", "Historic Germantown - Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia", "Germantown Mennonite Settlement (Pennsylvania, USA) - GAMEO", "German Settlement in Pennsylvania : An Overview", "Biography – SIMCOE, JOHN GRAVES – Volume V (1801-1820) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography", "Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario History - To Confederation", "The Walter Bean Grand River Trail - Waterloo County: The Beginning", "BUILDING COMMUNITY ON THE FRONTIER : the Mennonite contribution to shaping the Waterloo settlement to 1861", Hiwwe wie Driwwe - the Pennsylvania German Newspaper, German-American Heritage Foundation of the USA in Washington, DC, "Why the Pennsylvania German still prevails in the eastern section of the State", by George Mays, M.D.. Reading, Pa., Printed by Daniel Miller, 1904, The Schwenkfelder Library & Heritage Center, FamilyHart Pennsylvania Dutch Genealogy Family Pages and Database, Alsatian Roots of Pennsylvania Dutch Firestones, Pennsylvania Dutch Family History, Genealogy, Culture, and Life, Several digitized books on Pennsylvania Dutch arts and crafts, design, and prints, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950),, Short description is different from Wikidata, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It is similar to the German language but not identical. The German Society of Pennsylvania has a long history of language instruction. And forgive us our trespasses;

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