the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. "Us"—people with whom we share a common identity. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. One of the most important is the Schachter Singer theory of emotion, which is also known as the two-factor theory of emotion. For your AP exam you will need to know about classical conditioning, operant conditioning, cognitive processes, social learning, and biological factors. influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval, influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality, stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others, the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable, the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity, the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group, the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives, the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. AP Announcements. The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Choose from 500 different sets of ap psychology flashcards on Quizlet. 7.Max Wertheimer - A Gestalt psychologist who argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures Psychology. 20 free AP psychology practice tests. April 20, 2020 / in AP Psychology / by emmacalderwood Key Takeaways: Developmental Psychology There are a variety of factors that contribute to an individual’s … Memory Objectives. When taking the AP® Psychology test, you need to make sure you know what’s going to be on it. Our author has studied the topics and types of … Questions Settings. Sequential Easy First Hard First. Play as. Start. Another great set of Quizlet flashcards. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior. AP Psychology : Brain and Nervous System Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology. Course Description* AP Psychology is a course for advanced students who are interested in learning about human behavior from a scientific perspective.The class follows a curriculum designed to prepare students for the AP Psychology Exam, which is administered every May. Home Embed All AP Psychology Resources . As you prepare for your AP Psychology exam, you will encounter many theories of emotion. 102 Questions | By Emilyshorey | Last updated: Feb 15, 2013 | Total Attempts: 1658 . The College Board . This AP Psychology practice test covers learning. 5.1 ... Identify the contributions of key researchers in cognitive psychology. Start studying AP Psychology ALL Terms. Through this chapter, you will find out more about yourself through personality tests, such as the Myers-Briggs Test. Myers' Psychology for AP* eBook. Key Takeaways: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality Various theories of motivation strive to explain why people behave in certain ways by exploring the roles of instincts, internal and external rewards, the desire to maintain a certain level of arousal, the drive to reduce uncomfortable states, and the urge to fulfill physiological and psychological needs. defense mechanism in which painful memories are excluded from consciousness, a network of cells in the brainstem that filters sensory information and is involved in arousal and alertness, the sensory reception system of the eye; includes rods and cones, the process of recovering information stored in memory, when new learning disrupts the recall of previously-learned information, technique in therapy and training in which participants act out new behaviors or skills, a reflex in which a newborn turns its head in response to a gentle stimulus on its cheek, a projective test that uses inkblots as the ambiguous stimulus, the second rung of Maslow's hierarchy; refers to need for freedom from danger, this theory says that having suffered negative experience, an individual might blame an innocent person or group for the experience and subsequently mistreat the person or group, name for a graph of data points in a two variable correlation, these include fixed interval and variable ratio, a collection of basic knowledge about a category of information; serves as a means of organization and interpretation of that information, disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions, term describes conditioning in which the CS for one experiment becomes the UCS in another experiment so that another neutral stimulus can be made to elicit the original UCR, this term describes the situation when you are focused on certain stimuli in the environment while other stimuli are excluded, one's idea and evaluation of oneself; this contributes to one's sense of identity, one's ability to act effectively to bring about desired results; from Bandura, the highest of Malow's needs; "the full use of talent", the more positive one's estimation of one's qualities and characteristics, the higher this is, a belief or expectation that helps to make itself true, he tendency to assign oneself credit for successes but to blame failures on external forces, describes Piaget's stage in which the child explores the world through interaction of his mouth and hands with the environment, reduced responsiveness caused by prolonged stimulation, the parts of the brain that receive information from the sensory receptors, nervous system cells that receive information from the environment, this tells us that the best recall of a list of items will be of those at the beginning of the list, a neurotransmitter; associated with improved mood and other positive emotions, class of drugs used to relieve anxiety by limiting reuptake of a neurotransmitter, the point at which one's body tries maintain weight, its four stages are excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution, an operant conditioning technique in which reinforces guide behavior to closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior, type of memory that holds a few items briefly before they are lost, this theory predicts how and in what circumstances we can detect a stimulus; assumes there is no single threshold, a disorder characterized by cessation of breathing during sleep, short bursts of brain waves detected in stage 2 sleep, a perspective on psychology that emphasizes effects on behavior and thinking of one's culture and the people around one, a theory that suggests that our behavior is based on maximizing benefits and minimizing costs, a phenomenon in which we perform simple or well-learned tasks better when in the presence of others, a theory that suggests we learn social behaviors by watching and imitating others, a division of the nervous system that controls voluntary muscle movements, any of a group of psychological disturbances characterized by physical symptoms for which there is not a medical cause, a condition in which the two brain hemispheres are isolated by cutting the corpus callosum, in classical conditioning the re-occurence of conditioning after it had appeared to be extinct, a computation of how much scores vary around a mean, school of psychology developed by Wilhelm Wundt, a defense mechanism in which unacceptable energies are directed into socially admirable outlets, such as art, the part of the personality in Freud's theory that is responsible for making moral choices, part of the nervous system that controls the "flight or fight" response, space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the receptors of the next neuron, in language the set of rules that describe how words are arranged to make sentences, personality component that ranges from very calm to very exitable, a projective test in which subjects look at and tell a story about ambiguous pictures, this organizes data and is used to make predictions, in a neuron, reaching this causes the neuron to fire, a technique in operant conditioning by which desired behaviors receive forms of currency that can be exchanged for rewards, a common method of investigating whether nature or nurture affects behavior, in conditioning the behavior elicited by the unconditioned stimulus. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes. this cognitive short cut enables one to generalization based on how closely a stimulus matches a typical member of a class; given a picture of a man in a tweed jacket with a textbook, is this man a professor or a truck driver? Although many students enroll in the class, this particular exam is also well-suited to self-studying due to its heavy emphasis on vocabulary and highly specific theory. Instead, they are criterion-referenced, which means that every student who meets the criteria for an AP score of 2, 3, 4, or 5 will receive that score, no matter how many students that is. psychology 6.G. A comprehensive review of terminology for AP Psychology. There are three official AP Psychology practice tests available for free as PDFs: 2012 AP Psychology Exam; 1999 AP Psychology Exam; 1994 AP Psychology Exam; It's a smart idea to prioritize recent exams over older ones. a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people, unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members. AP Psychology. Results show as wavy lines. I've written this AP Psychology study guide as a way to make the process of studying for the AP test and other in-class assessments a little less overwhelming. This one has 678 cards, and is based on the 7th Edition of the Weiten textbook. Key Takeaways: Social Psychology. an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. AP Class Notes & Handouts. Start studying AP Psychology Unit 14. (Noam Chomsky, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Wolfgang Kohler, Elizabeth Loftus, ... Memory Quizlet. Abe and Frank artfully and adroitly adumbrate the second half of Unit 4, Sensation and Perception. This was a lot of work to compile together but I am happy with the result (considering that I'm a perfectionist, everything took me twice as long as it should have, but still). Students who are interested in majoring in psychology or another social science can also benefit from taking the course. The AP Psychology exam is one of the most popular APs among traditional students and self-studiers alike. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,600 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. or Create Online Exam. A comprehensive review of terminology for AP Psychology. the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. Definitions are for triggering other information. Start studying Module 17 AP Psychology. Written by an AP teacher, our easy-to-read format gives students a crash course in the major ideas, theories, and domains in psychology. The criteria for the number of points a student must earn on the AP Exam to receive scores of 3, an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. You have to pay for an account eventually, but you can start off with a free trial and cancel before the first payment is due if you want. AP Psychology. AP Psychology. the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another, the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition, the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition, feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events, attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts, attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness, the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request, a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave, the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. Psychology Announcements. the Latin for "I"; in Freud's theories, the mediator between the demands of the id and the superego, in a toddler, the belief that others perceive the world in the same way that he or she does, counterpart to the Oedipus complex for females, a treatment in which low level electric current is passed through the brain, early stage of human development, when cells have begun to differentiate, James-Lange, Cannon-Baird and Singer-Schachter are three, conversion of sensory information into a form that can be retained as a memory, the slow messenger system of the body; produces hormones that affect many bodily functions, neurotransmitters that give one a feeling of well-being, euphoria or eliminate pain, describes a type of memory that includes specific events that one has personally experienced, perspective that stresses the value of behavior in Darwinian terms, form of scientific investigation in which one variable is tested to determine its effect on another, subjects in an experiment to whom the independent variable is administered, term that describes memories that can be consciously recalled, this term describes what you have if your behaviors are driven mainly by outside forces, in classical conditioning, the process of eliminating the previously acquired association of the conditioned stimulus and conditioned response, one of the Big 5, a personality trait orients one's interests toward the outside world and other people, rather than inward, term that describes motivations that drive behavior in order to gain rewards from outside forces, a belief that others share the same opinion about something, when actually most don't, the ability of the brain to identify specific components of visual stimuli such as corners or edges, sometimes the result in a child of the mother's excessive drinking while pregnant, characterized by low birth weight, facial abnormalities, mental retardation, a stage in human development extending from about ten weeks after conception to birth, refers to our ability to distinguish foreground from background in visual images, describes the schedule of reinforcement wherein a worker receives a paycheck every Friday, describes a schedule of reinforcement wherein a worker is paid for a certain sum for each product produced, term describes a vivid memory of a personally significant and emotional event, term describes a type of intelligence used to cope with novel situations and problems, term describes a type of intelligence which applies cultural knowledge to solving problems, term describes a phenomenon in which people who agree to a small request are more likely to later agree to a larger request, One of Piaget's stages; includes the ability to use abstract thinking, theory of hearing which states that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the tone's frequency, the tendency to think about things only in terms of their usual uses; can be a hindrance to creative thinking, William James's school of thought that stressed the adaptive and survival value of behaviors, tendency to attribute others' behavior to their dispositions and our own behaviors to our situations, Seyle's concept that the body responds to stress with alarm, resistance and exhaustion, Erikson's stage of social development in which middle-aged people begin to devote themselves more to fulfilling one's potential and doing public service, made of DNA, it is the basic building block of heredity, Freud's stage of psychosexual development when adult sexuality is prominent, German word for "whole", it refers to our tendency to perceive incomplete figures as complete, this acts as a support system for neurons, a group's determination of socially acceptable behavior, tendency of group members to move to an extreme position after discussing an issue as a group, tendency for group members to think alike with certainty of correctness, biased perceptions of outgroup members, and generally defective decision-making processes, a false sensory perception that seems to be real but for which there is not an actual external stimulus, a substance capable of producing a sensory effect in the absence of real external sensory stimuli, the extent to which differences in a group of a characteristic is due to genetics, not environment, a useful, but unprovable, cognitive shortcut, such as a "rule of thumb", Maslow's theory of the most important motivations people have, the tendency, after an event occurs, to overestimate the likelihood that an event could have been predicted, limbic system component associated with memory, the steady, stable state that is the body's regulatory processes try to maintain, chemical substance secreted by endocrine glands that affect body processes, perspective in psychology that stresses the goodness of people and their possibility of reaching their fullest potential, it is regulated by the lateral hypothalamus and the ventromedial hypothalamus, a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain events or emotions will occur, a disorder characterized by an unreasonable fear that one has a serious disease, limbic system component that regulates hunger, body temperature and other functions, a prediction of how the an experiment will turn out, in Freud's conception, the repository of the basic urges toward sex and agression, Erikson's stage during which teenagers and young adults search for and become their true selves, evidence of critical period in some animals; they follow the first moving thing they see after hatching, tendency to favor one's own group over other groups, an external stimulus that tends to encourage behavior, type of variable manipulated by the experimenter, culture in which the individual is valued more highly than the group, Erikson's stage between 6 and 11 years, when the child learns to be productive, Adler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiences, humans accomplish this either in parallel (unconsciously) or in serial fashion (consciously), agreement to participate in psychology research, after being appraised of the dangers and benefits of the research, Erikson's third stage in which the child finds independence in planning, playing and other activities, a legal term describing one's inability to be responsible for one's action due to the condition of the mind, in psychoanalysis, the basic understanding one develops of the underlying sources of emotion or behavioral difficulty, inability to fall asleep or remain asleep long enough for sufficient rest, a complex pattern of behavior that is fixed across a species, Erikson's final stage in which those near the end of life look back and evaluate their lives, the ability to learn from experience, to use information, to understand things, the average is 100; there are many definitions of this attribute, including multiple and crystallized, people with this tned to respond to internal states and desires; they tend to see their successes as the result of their own efforts, cells in the spinal cord through which reflexes travel without going to the brain, monocular visual cue in which two objects are in the same line of vision and one patially conceals the other, indicating that the first object concealed is further away, Erikson's stage in which individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, begin families, term that describes motivations that derive from one's interest in the object of the motivation, rather than from rewards that one might gain, a personality trait that signifies that one finds energy from internal sources rather than external ones, theory of emotion in which physiological arousal precedes the emotion, phenomenon that describes the belief that what happens to people is what they deserve, the threshold at which one can distinguish two stimuli that are of different intensities, but otherwise identical, sense of balance and of one's physical position, Freud's stage of psychosexual development occuring from about age 6 to puberty during which little happens in psychosexual terms, the hidden or disguised meaning of dreams, a change in behavior due to experience acquired without conscious effort, s, for example, a student using a quote in an exam essay that the student had never tried to memorize, though had encountered it in studying, Thorndike's rule that behaviors which have positive outcomes tend to be repeated, lack of motivation to avoid unpleasant stimuli after one has failed before to escape similar stimuli, a curved, transparent element of the vision system that provides focus, any destruction or damage to brain tissue, in psychopharmacology, this is used to control bipolar symptoms, describes research that measures a trait in a particular group of subjects over a long period of time, refers to memory that is stored effectively in the brain and may be accessed over an extended period of time, a possible source of the formation of memories; improvement in a neuron's ability to transmit caused by repeated stimulations, describes a dream in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and is able to influence the progress of the dream narrative, describes a type of visual memory that is retained for a long time; photographic, high state of arousal, often accompanied by poor judgment, describes, in Freudian terms, the surface content of a dream, a drug, often smoked, whose effects include euphoria, impairment of judgment and concentration and occasionally hallucinations; rarely reported as addictive, part of the brain nearest the spinal cord which controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure, functions associated with this include encoding, storage and retrieval, developed by Binet; equal to one's chronological age times the percentage score on an IQ test, this phenomenon causes one to prefer a stimulus as a consequence of repeated exposures to that stimulus, particularly is there is no adverse result of the exposure, the initials of a long, detailed personality inventory; Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, method of improving memory by associating new information with previously learned information, the most commonly occurring term in a batch of data, the process of observing and imitating a behavior, terms that means "one eyed", used to indicate the sort of of environmental cues to depth perception that only require one eye, for example, interposition, in language, the smallest unit that carries meaning, a depth cue in which the relative movement of elements in a scene gives depth information when the observer moves relative to the scene, a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior, an area of the brain, near the rear of the frontal lobes, that controls voluntary movement, this carries information from the brain to the muscles; also called "efferent", a technique that enables us to see static images of the brain's structures; uses magnetism to achieve this effect, previously called multiple personality disorder; disorder where personality is segmented into 3+ identities; often controversial; often accompanied by sever trauma at a young age, a layer of fatty tissue encasing a neuron's axon that speeds transmission, a disorder characterized by sudden sleep attacks, often at inopportune times, term refers to observations made of individual's behavior in an everyday life setting, name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior, in operant conditioning, removing something unpleasant in order to elicit more of a particular behavior, the fundamental building block of the nervous system, perspective on psychology that emphasizes the study of the brain and its effects on behavior, a chemical that is released by a neuron for the purpose of carrying information across the gaps (synapses) between neurons, describes a stimulus in classical conditioning that would normally not elicit the response intended, such as the tone in Pavlov's experiments before it was associated with the food, also called sleep terror disorder, these include the characteristic of waking abruptly in a state of panic, usually in children, less often in adults, describes a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that shows the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes, refers to sleep during which there is no rapid eye movement, condition of having excess body fat resulting in being greatly overweight, recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age, change in behavior due to watching other people behave, an anxiety disorder characterized by repetitive obsessions and compulsions, this lobe contains the primary vision processing function, in Freud's theory, the conflict which results in a boy gaining a superego and beginning to emulate his father, the first brain structure to pick up smell information from the nose, a procedure in which reinforcement occurs when a specific behavior does not occur in a fixed period of time, a method of influencing behavior by rewarding desired behaviors and punishing undesired ones, a description of an experimental variable in such a way that the variable can be measured and the procedure can be replicated, the point in the brain where the visual field information from each eye "crosses over" to the appropriate side of the brain for processing, the axons of the ganglion cells form this, Freud's first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouth, term used in both vision theory and emotion theory, generally, any group that one does not belong to, membrane at the enterance to the cochlea through which the ossicles transmit vibrations, characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks, a type of schizophrenia characterized by prominent delusions that are persecutory or grandiose, the branch of the nervous system that automatically calms us down when the reason for arousal has passed, this ailment, whose symptoms includes tremors and later difficulty walking, is caused by inability to produce dopamine, the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, the subsystem of the nervous system that does not include the CNS, describes a parenting style that is characterized by the parent making few demands on the child, therapy developed by Rogers featuring the patient's self-discovery and actualization; also called client-centered, a consistent pattern of thinking, acting, feeling, method of brain imaging using positron emissions, name for Freud's stage which features the Oedipus stage, in language, smallest distinctive sound unit, gland that is the master gland of the endocrine system, the idea that different sound frequencies stimulate different locations on the basilar membrae, an inert substance given to the control group in an experiment, phenomenon that some people get better even though they receive not medication but an inert substance which should have no medical effect, the ability of the brain to adapt to damage by reorganizing functions, part of the brain, works with the cerebellum in coordinating voluntary movement; neural stimulation studied in activation synthesis theory may originate here, all of the individuals from which subjects for an experiment may be drawn, field of study which concentrates on good psychological traits such as contentment and joy; it also studies character traits such as wisdom, integrity and altruism, initials representing a disorder in which one relives painfully stressful events, in Freud's theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness, Kohlberg's stage of moral development in which rewards and punishments dominate moral thinking, a negative attitude formed toward an individual or group without sufficient experience with the person or group, Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, when egocentrism declines, when prior learning disrupts the recall of new information, defense mechanism in which one disguises one's won unacceptable impulses by attributing them to others, term describes a personality test in which ambiguous stimuli trigger revelation of inner feelings, thoughts, medical doctor who has specialized in treating psychological disorders, term describes the perspective on psychology in which inner feeling and unconscious tensions are emphasized, the study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior, can be either positive or negative, intended to reduce the occurrence of a behavior, term that describes assignment in which all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to the control group or to the experimental group, Albert Ellis's form of therapy for psychological disorders, "The only reason I flunked the test is because our teacher is no good.
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