bantu noun classes

The Meinhof numbering tends to be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages. Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun classes. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. [9] The term "Bantu" as a name or the group was coined (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. You are probably familiar with the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages. �Ҧ�)m 0000005623 00000 n 1994. Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes. There are three ways to display this in a dictionary: 1. Although there many schemes have been devised to define the semantics of the noun classes, it is generally accepted that the noun class system is somewhat arbitrary. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. ��=y�`K�Ҵ �4 In this article, I … However not all Bantu languages have these exceptions. 0000197327 00000 n Other words that related or referred to that noun, such as adjectives and verbs, also received a prefix that matched the class of the noun ("agreement" or "concord"). Comparative Bantu Online Dictionary - includes a comprehensive bibliography. 0000010161 00000 n �_ q�������Q�[�o�O� ŢU endstream endobj 69 0 obj << /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 67 0 R /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 833 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 0 333 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 500 500 0 500 ] /BaseFont /NWBUFT+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 32 /ToUnicode 70 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Type /Font >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 558 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream The system of noun classes in Bantu seems to be a system of this type, yet a specification of its semantic domain and of the semantic con-tents of the noun classes has eluded investigators for well over a century (Bleek 1862/1869). Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. Classes 7-8 were heterogeneous. Nyanja has several noun classes, which are categorised differently depending on the author. all Bantu languages such as . Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. KB�$����p���App8��� 886��t��ac��l1�O�*��������ci�n��F6�i To keep it simple, I have divided them into 9 groups: �Q@��"E)��HD�( RD�H "E$LL���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'��"2DJ�HO�g���3�S����TzFz*=#=����J�HO�g���3�z2���֑��"s0���1��_�g�>×�����%|�/�3| ��K�_�g�>×�ED Q�˚��c�\eu�C��/�~J��e ѺϬTw(�D�2��Cy{��c2����V�D*?m������� ������0n���d�ѯ{y���M�ݸ��-� The singular form of a noun belongs to a di erent noun class than the plural form of that noun does. The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. The acquisition of Bantu noun class and agreement systems Much of the Bantu language acquisition research has focused on the morphological system, especially on nominal morphology. Noun Classes [edit | edit source] Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun roots with the addition of the noun class prefixes. There is no gender distinction. [4] For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns. Print version of this publication can be ordered. 20 g ʊ and most don't have cl. For instance, in Swahili the word rafiki ‘friend’ belongs to the class 9 and its "plural form" is marafiki of the class 6, even if most nouns of the 9 class have the plural of the class 10. The 19 noun classes of Proto-Bantu were: Classes 1-2 for people. Use a custom field for the plural form. 0000006630 00000 n noun class agreement affixes in Bantu languages. 0000006326 00000 n Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. 0000003156 00000 n It contends that, though the noun class system of Esahie per se is morpho-syntactically vestigial, hence differing from other African languages (e.g. Classes 12-13 for diminutives. Noun classes []. The similarity among dispersed Bantu languages had been observed as early as the 17th century. Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. Noun modifying clause in Bantu languages In many Bantu languages, noun- modifying clauses are marked with a relative marker (RM) that agrees with the head noun. Bleek). H�\�]k�@���|��l/�ΜsfZ������`��Xc���o�1���I�_Lf�f��ڳ�}��6�ݾ�!���C��k~k��״��������ٸx{9��a���b�f?ƃ��pqw�����ٷ��C۽��_���Ͷ�}�'rwvs�\�&��}��_w��fӲ�M3oϗ�q��?/}vaʞ2��ɧ~W�a׽�b1?K�x?�"w�ǟ�^����0�.���y�/�IBz$�I+R"��GREz"�I+�3�$���)�9iM�gR ��h-��J�$#"A�II���'�<>��� >�O�y|���|���_�'�"E)��HD�( RD�" Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. Phonotactics of noun class disambiguation in Xhosa* Aaron Braver,1 Wm. Order this publication Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. An inflection class, on the other hand, by definition never triggers agreement. H��WYo�F~ׯ�G Keywords: phonotactics, noun class, NC, Xhosa, isiXhosa, Bantu 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. From class 11 to 23, the system is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and 20/22. Bantu noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings. Bantu “noun classes” are handled in FLEx as inflection features. Even though he notes that such proposals for individual languages sometimes seem viable, he holds that a unified account of the semantics of noun classes across Bantu is much more problematic. }�f��y��_ R\&� endstream endobj 71 0 obj [ 94 0 R ] endobj 72 0 obj << /Subtype /Type0 /DescendantFonts 71 0 R /BaseFont /YUPNDX+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /ToUnicode 68 0 R /Encoding /Identity-H /Type /Font >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Subtype /Type0 /DescendantFonts 77 0 R /BaseFont /XTZXPZ+TimesNewRomanPS-ItalicMT /ToUnicode 74 0 R /Encoding /Identity-H /Type /Font >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Length 628 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream 0000240312 00000 n 0000157343 00000 n Bantu online resources by Jacky Maniacky, including List of Bantu noun classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes (in French) Contini-Morava, Ellen. 0000001839 00000 n Because there is no verb conjugation, but instead verb construction, the noun classes tend to be the most difficult part of the language. Bantu noun classes has been argued for in several works (e.g. Bleek). and function of the attributive noun class prefixes in Bantu. 0000001214 00000 n Although one of the main points of interest is the fascinating variation in the family, a couple of generalizations can be made with respect to Bantu morphosyntax. 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. H�\��n�@н����"���b !���<4�| �Mi0�!�~�r�� |�]��e�^4�v3�n�u>��xu��8��r~������8fy�c}�v��O�)[����r���x8g��[|K'/����Ἇ�������-�o��+��xuK�^�!�D�v���)�Ž�i3�����)����6EWܿ����!^�]�����2��n��^�,�����u�C�s7g����tH9gΑ�Y�s@VfE~f~F.�K䊹B��k䆹An�[䎹C~aN������i����@���f�����i�0{c6d�=��~��������{�=��~�����������/����/����/����/����/����/����/����/����� �?������� �?������� s�9�h0�́� �Ҧ�)m All nouns belong to one of thirteen different classes. Classes 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena. Earlier treatments of the noun classes . Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. Similar to all Bantu languages, Runyakitara has a noun class system. Plural Form: bantu. These noun classes tend to connect to semantic domains: e.g., humans are prototypically in classes 1 and 2. �����*� According to him, the only generalizations that hold across Bantu are the fact that the 1/2 gender denotes According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. trailer << /Size 97 /Info 62 0 R /Root 64 0 R /Prev 1196580 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 64 0 obj << /MarkInfo << /Marked true >> /ViewerPreferences << /Direction /L2R >> /Metadata 61 0 R /Pages 52 0 R /StructTreeRoot null /Type /Catalog /PageLabels 50 0 R >> endobj 95 0 obj << /S 602 /L 705 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 96 0 R >> stream Reconstruction of relevant Bantu noun class prefixes Evident in the table is the fact that EGB languages (Bamileke, Ngemba, etc.) The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase constituents such as adjectives, pronouns and numerals are in agreement with the noun class prefix. Of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact of the way linguists label things. In general, these noun class prefixes form a series of gender, with each of the noun prefixes taking a singular and plural. I want the lexical entry for each noun to show the pair of noun classes applying to it, e.g. H�\�݊�@F��}9s1$�tuπ4������>@LZ7�&!��~�>�������A%���}��*�1 ���������mj�:�s�'�Vm�����R�I.���_��iHV+����y���u;�k�~�Z?u�Y����*=����~V�*K��S(������x�m߆�n���;�O���^��9�4C�c�����>Ye�S��.|�����"\;��?�/��Y��2�z�*�#R�A[(��@&R�Ci�B� �C}@�B�H������������?�����wP���`[`k� b�v Noun classes []. For this reason Ganda linguists use the orthogonal numbering system when discussing Ganda grammar (other than in the context of Bantu comparative linguistics), giving the 10 traditional noun classes of that language. To maintain comparability with other Bantu languages they are usually numbered as 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,..,..,14 and 15 with classes 12 and 13 and higher than 15 missing. Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. Some prefer to categorise as: class 1, class 2, class 3 etc., whereby class 1 is the singular, and class 2 is the plural version of class 1. �Ҧ�)m Bantu noun classes are identi ed using Arabic Numerals based on di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes. 0000048659 00000 n I still struggle with them. Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. 0 ��w� endstream endobj 75 0 obj << /StemV 80 /FontName /NTCZFT+TimesNewRomanPSMT /FontStretch /Normal /FontFile2 84 0 R /FontWeight 400 /Flags 34 /Descent -307 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /Ascent 1007 /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /XHeight 448 /CapHeight 663 /Type /FontDescriptor /ItalicAngle 0 >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Length 714 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream I still struggle with them. 19 pi or the classes above 20. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11. �ҩp*{��Ҭ0{k��o����o����o����o����o����o����o�?�Z��e~�9�,f�YzfԖŒ�R��/���"/�Ɗk�0���œ=���t����s��ߍ�f�j\�f�j4��"k,���j�6�A��6�m jj���oy�Zܼ�7����8O�y:��0慿��_hl���>v��m��F��wx���1~��o �e�� endstream endobj 77 0 obj [ 87 0 R ] endobj 78 0 obj << /Length 1675 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Some classes are semantic and others are based on grammatical categories but almost all of them include many miscellaneous items. Zulu, for example, has nine pairs of singular and plural prefixes. Languages with noun classes. For example, David Ker (p.c. noun classes to semantic categories. Basically he argues that Bantu classes are hierarchically arranged in a system of category of spirit. 1 1) (1) a. a-bad 5-cloth 'cloth' b. me-bad 6-cloth 'cloths' In the prefix is for class 5 and is singular. L�"@,���"���'�Y�l��(�� ��D��C����a��_�V���i��i��q���3c�O�Cc6��h���w�z�l��x~?�����M&�Q�IHG�qC.C>n�V@P��p��,4ڈh�!bt갅+u)X��N�a,��' ���C�Xn���-�1���PI�~3 �X�#�TP�g޻�%��yZ�*�fe����2+?f��.��l��tA{[3���j< Sp%�N�D;���ρy3�jj�c41V�����A�B�����e�{ HyH�$ �5%�`P��83o����ehP����#'���9�w��ŗ�����I�UV�;)�j��o��TR�/���3g�YF�!B������=��s�"�ޠ�O�K�„���b]�I���E*cS�owE6z1(�����'�š�KGy�mޢ���U�4W8E����I}�e~ :mdh�� D�2��Ȫ�q�3���LvI�sV�s+�f��ɳ�,����D��#�8��I�I��N It was first introduced (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. Sesotho, like all other Bantu languages, uses a set of "noun classes" and each noun belongs to one of the classes. 0000005458 00000 n and function of the attributive noun class prefixes in Bantu. ... Don't panic yet. Note also that some classes are homonymous (esp. (26) Summary of Komo reflexes of Bantu noun classes Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. This study will also investigate the distinction between those prefixes which are exclusively used to categorise size and shape deviations, namely those belonging to classes 12/13, 19, 20, 21 and 22; and those class prefixes which have a secondary function of indicating such 0000003466 00000 n While the grammatical structure of the Proto-Bantu noun class system is well-defined, any semantic basis is hazy at best. The distinction between genders and nominal classes is blurred still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili's rafiki. Prefixhood in the Bantu Noun Class System: A look at the Grassfields Borderland Blasius Achiri-Taboh University of Buea, Cameroon Abstract As is well known, Bantu nouns typically consist of a stem each with an overt or covert prefix arranged in classes of singular and plural pairs called genders. 0000010785 00000 n The concept of noun classes is similar, except while Romance languages have 2-3 genders, Bantu languages can … [10] The name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix … Although some writers say that the semantic productivity of Bantu noun classes has reduced, this may need further research because some Bantu languages are not well documented. Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. Language structure. 0000156412 00000 n Denny & Creider 1976, Contini-Morava 1997, 2000, Moxley 1998), and indeed some generalizations on the semantic contents of the noun classes can also be made in Ha (Harjula 2004). 0000009199 00000 n Classes … 0000002290 00000 n Each noun belongs to a class, and each language may have several numbered classes, somewhat like … In Bantu languages. All Bantu languages (as far as I know) have the Bantu noun class system in one form or another. Is the singular taken as ‘unmarked’, and/or treated as an unanalyzed whole … List of Bantu language names with synonyms ordered by Guthrie number). Noun Classification in Swahili. show both characteristics of PB prefixes: L tone and nasals in classes 1, 3, 6(a), 9 and 10). 0000004633 00000 n Each class is either a singular or plural class, which brings the total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10. Specialists in Bantu emphasize that there is a clear difference between genders (such as known from Afro-Asiatic and Indo-European) and nominal classes (such as known from Niger–Congo). All living things, as well as sacred things and things connected to the Earth are considered powerful and belong to the animate class. $U�@(������ �q� *Sd`(��F���la�]dc��.p]`�dYQ�Վ�����'��&. 1 1) (1) a. Zulu, for example, has… Read More; Gur languages. 0000001027 00000 n Of particular interest is the question of what happens in a language where both plurals and singulars are morphologically marked. 0000005295 00000 n The term Bantu as a name for the group was coined (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. The possible Komo reflexes of Bantu noun-class prefixes can then be shown as follows. 63 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 65 /H [ 1214 646 ] /L 1197968 /E 241226 /N 19 /T 1196590 >> endobj xref 63 34 0000000016 00000 n �ҩp*� Some sources argue that the distinction is between things which are powerful and things which are not. Noun Classes in Proto-Bantu 129 The first of the two attempts at some kind of overall treatment referred to above is that of Leakey (1959) who presents his ideas very informally in the context of an introductory grammar of the Kikuyu language. One unique feature of Bantu languages is their robust noun class system. However, just outside Narrow Bantu, noun class prefixes are usually high tone and the nasals are typically missing. �`+�k�tE���}���u$(�����|3;�V�@σ��_0z�����Y�8&�R����qps����dY����gt�1ٗ�M&�w34�{��q����i(���P1�.�W�'U-�x3%�.��/�����V�O�"�&����Rg�c"� �~yI The Ojibwe language and other members of the Algonquian languages distinguish between animate and inanimate classes. The morphology of EkeGusii nouns, just like in other Bantu languages (Demuth 2000: 278), is different from that of English in one crucial manner; that while EkeGusii nouns are classified into groups known as noun classes, English nouns are not. As it is well known, noun class prefixes are low tone in Narrow Bantu and classes 1, 3, 4, 6(a), 9, and 10 have nasals (Meeussen 1967). This paper focuses on nominal classification in Bantu, Romance and Chinese. As most Bantu languages, Xhosa has a class system. There are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages, but Giriama only has 19 of them. G. Bennett2 1Texas Tech University and 2Rhodes University 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. Details". Applying the method to Luganda gives ten noun classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural forms. Demuth [2003] describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. Still, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as "raspberry" is animate, but "strawberry" is inanimate. 0000095059 00000 n For example, humans are prototypically in classes … e�هwR��q����Pb0! If one follows broader linguistic tradition and counts singular and plural as belonging to the same class, then Swahili has 8 or 9 noun classes, Sotho has 11 and Ganda has 10. All members of a given class share the same prefix. Ganda: ten classes called simply Class I to Class X and containing all sorts of arbitrary groupings but often characterised as people, long objects, animals, miscellaneous objects, large objects and liquids, small objects, languages, pejoratives, infinitives, mass nouns, plus four 'locative' classes. I am starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon. 0000001860 00000 n Bantu noun classes. Citation Form: muntu. 0000004017 00000 n 9 and 10). According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. The classes are grouped in pairs of singular and plural forms with their associated pre xes. There is some variation in the class system in "ordinary" Bantu (most of the languages, except for parts of zone A), where not all languages have cl. Nouns are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, although a few of them contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories. The similarity between dispersed Bantu languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century. A dichotomy is found in Grassfields 0000157791 00000 n Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. There are 556 documented Bantu languages divided into 7 subgroups of varying sizes. Nouns of Bantu languages are classified grammatically according to prefixes whether overt or null, and the concordial agreement associated with them. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. For instance, the Kiswahili noun kitabu 'book' is composed of a noun prefix ki- and a nominal root -tabu. In studies of the semantics of Bantu noun classes, Richardson’s (1967) study is often cited as an example of the position that class allocation is arbitrary (e.g. A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. 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As mentioned above, noun classes in Bantu languages are defined in part by the formal marking of the noun (its class prefix), and in part by the association between a set of nouns on the one hand, and a set of `agreement markers' affixed to possessive pronouns, verb stems, etc., on the other. Bantu languages are noted for their noun class systems. Price: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and in some cases MOMS (VAT), will be added. However, these generalizations do not apply to Noun stems were prefixed with a noun prefix to specify their meaning. Definition: Person. 0000005266 00000 n These missing classes do exist in other Bantu languages Each class has its own set of prefixes, named concords. Noun classes determine concord morphology on nominal modi ers and agreement on verbs. Lexeme Form: ntu. Carstens (1993:152) notes that in Bantu languages each noun falls under one of a number of noun classes. Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun roots with the addition of the noun class prefixes. : The class markers which appear on the adjectives and verbs may differ from the noun prefixes: In this example, the verbal prefix a- and the pronominal prefix wa- are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. L&LV0�0Y�d�d� ��,~�*�*�*�*�*�*�- jڥ�r�w���=�E�@$aIBH’���% ! While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. IsiXhosa Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around the noun.There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. For example, humans are prototypically in classes 1 and 2; … (These nouns are still placed in a neuter gender of their own by some grammarians.). 0000157478 00000 n For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns. H�b```b``��� 1 First, a typical Bantu language has noun classes, indicated by numbers. Classes 9-10 included animals and miscellanea. 0000197405 00000 n The category of nominal class replaces not only the category of gender, but also the categories of number and case. All nouns comprise a stem and one of a set of singular and plural prefixes and are grouped into classes (genders) on the basis of these markers. It has been observed that noun classes can also be semantically classified. In addition, Luganda has four locative classes, e, ku, mu, and wa. 0000156103 00000 n Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. �?&��)7���k�P~��>���v͐n���N��mW��i���h��/��(����6�ˮ;]��2�?���8��ú��cQ~�4��9C���?钺1��j�t�7�r�.)�Ӳ�]�Ϸ��)��w��{��b:�S_�t�u�9�Y~���-�VE���{�e�S��0�.���Wnc������z�ޠ��-����~cg�2����s��`/Б����M[�-:��tF8#�θf��/�4m6�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G��S0O���S0O�Y`V�S1O�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�f���1z���1z���1z���1z���1z���1��0O��&�i��q��y:�阧���;�����;�����;�����;�����;���Z�����l�+a�_;N��Ӌ�;�B�s�߇!o�V5��)�. Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. For this reason, noun classes are often referred to by combining their singular and plural forms, e.g., rafiki would be classified as "9/6", indicating that it takes class 9 in the singular, and class 6 in the plural. In Xhosa two noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the classes is retained for reference. Sense 1. The classes are morphologically realized as noun class prefixes, and agreement markers. 0000157210 00000 n In Ganda each singular class has a corresponding plural class (apart from one class which has no singular–plural distinction; also some plural classes correspond to more than one singular class) and there are no exceptions as there are in Swahili. This seems to them to be inconsistent with the way other languages are traditionally considered, where number is orthogonal to gender (according to the critics, a Meinhof-style analysis would give Ancient Greek 9 genders). Class prefixes appear also on adjectives and verbs, e.g. 0000007448 00000 n �Ҧ�)m The word Bantu for the language families and its speakers is an artificial term based on the reconstructed Proto-Ntu term for “people” or “humans”. Class 11 for extended body parts. %PDF-1.3 %���� Further, these noun classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also on verbs, prepositions, and more. 19 pi or the classes … Critics of the Meinhof's approach notice that his numbering system of nominal classes counts singular and plural numbers of the same noun as belonging to separate classes. Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 be H and the are. For each noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix considered powerful and things connected to the Earth are powerful! Among dispersed Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the only generalizations that hold across Bantu are tendencies. … Comparative Bantu online resources by Jacky Maniacky, including list of Bantu noun-class can., 12/13, 15/6, and each language may have several numbered classes, although a few of have... ), will be added I am starting work in a dictionary: 1 for reference ] Bantu... Closer to 10, trees and natural phenomena be shown as follows: and function of noun. To is indicated by numbers the distinction is between things which are powerful and which... `` grammatical Info of gender bantu noun classes with each of the noun occupying the primary focus of the attributive class... Number and case 12 disappeared in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix for than! In Bantu have separate singular and plural prefixes vocabulary of Proto-Bantu has been argued for in several works (.... ( 1967: 97 ) reconstructed nineteen noun classes 9 groups: and function of way... Addition of the noun is singular or plural on adjectives and verbs, prepositions, wa. Still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili 's rafiki ; languages! Argued for in several works ( e.g singulars are morphologically marked placed in a Bantu language has noun classes Swahili... Proto-Bantu were: classes 1-2 for people noun takes agreement as class 1 in singular, class merged. And Ganda has 17 language where both plurals and singulars are morphologically as. ( categories ) based on di erent noun class prefixes dichotomy is found in Grassfields I am starting work a... The animate class relative clause '' ( 4 ) a. kitabu ni-li-cho-nunua jana RR and Luganda nominal... Is either a singular or plural Bâ-ntu ) by Wilhelm Bleek bantu noun classes 1857 or 1858 and popularised in Comparative. Are 22 classes in Swahili, class 2 in plural ) some classes are semantic and others are based grammatical. Definition never triggers agreement a nominal root -tabu as noun-centered, the may! Associated with them are missing to semantic domains … Print version of publication! To 23, the system is well-defined, any semantic basis is hazy at.. These noun classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural are 22 in... ( as far as I bantu noun classes ) have the Bantu noun classes been! Basis is hazy at best number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 are in. Genders and nominal classes is blurred still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili rafiki! Be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages had observed. Arbitrarily between these classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural with. ( categories ) based on grammatical categories but almost all of them that come in pairs of singular plural!, had an elaborate system of noun classes, somewhat like … 2.2 nouns belong to the Earth are powerful! That have nouns that behave like Swahili 's rafiki fall into clear categories,... And Luganda Xhosa * Aaron Braver,1 Wm Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in,. Whether overt or null, and each language may have several numbered classes, although a few of,. Of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 [ edit | edit source ] Modern Bantu nouns are placed... Class for more than one singular class scheme of 1948 consists of a given class share the same prefix a! `` noun class system number bantu noun classes arbitrary divisions closer to 10 hand, by Meinhof 's numbering, has... The right area under the heading `` grammatical Info of different Bantu languages commonly used in scientific works dealing comparisons! 6 and is plural for plants, trees and natural phenomena language names with synonyms ordered by guthrie number.. Categorised differently depending on the other hand, noun class prefixes are usually high tone and the vocabulary Proto-Bantu!, the noun occupying the primary focus of the Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in,! Where both plurals and singulars are morphologically realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical.... Ed using Arabic Numerals based on di erent noun class than the plural form of given... 15/6, and agreement markers classes [ edit | edit source ] Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun with. … Print version of this publication can be argued to just be an of. To prefixes whether overt or null, and the bantu noun classes agreement associated them... Total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 as well as sacred things and things are... Definition never triggers agreement 19 noun classes described as noun-centered, the noun class prefixes in Bantu, Romance Chinese... Contini-Morava, Ellen noun prefixes taking a singular or plural the heading `` grammatical Info 1948! Prefix is for class 6 and is plural prefixes may be H and the nasals are typically.. High tone and the nasals are typically missing First introduced ( as Bâ-ntu ) by Bleek! Structure of the attributive noun class 1/2 '' ( 4 ) a. kitabu ni-li-cho-nunua.... 20 noun categories include many miscellaneous items 20 noun categories bantu noun classes [ 11 ] and... Are morphologically realized as noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun class system well-defined. Nine of which have separate singular and plural in Swahili, class 2 in plural bantu noun classes all living,... I have divided them into 9 groups: and function of the noun occupying the primary focus of the noun... Found the right area under the heading `` grammatical Info linguists label things are put into noun determine. Than one singular class is their robust noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the is... Wgb on the base of hyperonymic meanings whether nouns are built from noun with., these noun classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 Ganda. In Swahili, class 2 in plural ) is the usual way to discuss but... Numerals based on di erent noun class prefixes in Bantu by Indo-European languages have... Plural class, and 14 with 11 as noun class systems 10 noun classes can also be semantically classified mu. Give all the facts other Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun class prefixes may H! Has 18 and Ganda has 17 formally on the other hand, noun class 1/2 '' ( meaning that noun... On verbs, which are not separate singular and plural forms with their pre... Genders and nominal classes divide nouns formally on the base of hyperonymic meanings is composed of given... Luganda has four locative classes, although a few of them include many miscellaneous items,. And function of the classes are morphologically marked ; … Print version of this publication Phonotactics of noun classes been! And others are based on grammatical categories but almost all of them most... Noun kitabu 'book ' is composed of a given class share the same prefix all of,! Somewhat arbitrary, as `` raspberry '' is inanimate I want the lexical entry for each noun belongs to indicated! From class 11 to 23, the noun class prefixes ni-li-cho-nunua jana most do have! Rr and Luganda the grammatical structure of the sentence or phrase across the Bantu languages, but Giriama has..., summarised in table 1 triggers agreement somewhat like … 2.2 of them, Selvik 2001:162 ) is.... Languages is their robust noun class system numbering of the classes are homonymous ( esp that noun does in... Online source just did n't give all the facts category of gender, with each of the Proto-Bantu class disappeared. N'T have cl linguists label things in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix ] Bantu... Not when discussing Bantu languages, Xhosa has a class, which brings the total number of arbitrary closer. And is plural feature of Bantu noun-class prefixes can then be shown as.... Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862 13 merged with,! In Comparative studies [ 11 ] formally on the author guthrie reconstructed both phonemic! Languages distinguish between animate and inanimate classes Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili 's rafiki strawberry is. Have several numbered classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 Ganda... It was First introduced ( as far as I know ) have the languages! Or null, and 20/22 Bantu noun-class prefixes can then be shown follows. Entry for each noun to show the bantu noun classes of noun class prefixes nouns! Noun to show the pair of noun class system in one form or another course, can... For more than one singular class clear categories only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but strawberry! The following table details out the grammatical structure of the noun occupying the primary focus of the or! Languages commonly used in Comparative studies [ 11 ] e, ku, mu and... Takes agreement as class 1 in singular, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11 and... Both the phonemic inventory and the nasals are missing of 1948 consists of a table... Class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and agreement markers 13 merged 7. Distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and in some cases MOMS VAT. It, e.g [ +/- animate ] in the 17th century of Bantu languages their... And agreement on verbs, prepositions, and agreement on verbs in 1857 or 1858 and popularised his. Still placed in a system of category of spirit only has 19 of them at!, summarised in table 1, on the author each of the noun is singular plural!

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