Social inclusion Social inclusion could be seen as an ideal that modern society aspires to, however it has been considered as a difficult concept to define, which may be due in part to the multifaceted nature of the reasons why individuals are excluded from society (Wilcock 2006). The NHS provides a good definition of advocacy: If you find it difficult to understand your care and support or find it hard speak up, there are people who can act as a spokesperson for you. It was built around routine and amongst the daily chores and medical care, residents were given very little stimulation or activities. Non-instructed advocacy is when the individual is unable to express their desires to the advocate. Learning disabilities affect intellect and should not be confused with learning difficulties (such as dyslexia), which do not affect intellect. Six ways to support diversity and inclusion in the workplace 1. The conditions of residential hospitals were also criticised with reports of isolated locations with visits being discouraged, poorly trained staff, lack of co-ordination and patients having little to no belongings. This act has helped to ensure that people with learning disabilities have the same life opportunities as everybody else. 6.3 Describe ways of checking whether an individual has understood a communication and how to address any misunderstandings. If a woman were to get pregnant, they would not have been allowed to keep the child. The Human Rights Act 1998 sets out the fundamental rights and liberties that all residents of the UK are entitled to. 3.5Describe ways of using a person centred approach to enable older people to make positive contributions to their community The … In addition, the attitudes of people of the time judged individuals with learning disabilities to be asexual. This may mean that it is necessary to slow down you speech or give the individual more time to process the information you have given them. Explain the benefits of social inclusion for: >Individuals – >Communities – 3. In 1948, the NHS took responsibility for the institutions and they were changed to ‘hospitals’ however the practices and services remained pretty much the same although Mental Health Officers were appointed to work with individuals outside of hospitals. Educate employees by helping them to understand how individuals are impacted by unconscious bias, and what actions continue to reinforce unconscious bias. We understand that social exclusion can happen when people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, discrimination, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime, bad health and family breakdown. In the eyes of the law, all individuals have the same fundamental rights and freedoms as set out by the Human Rights Act 1998. However, you should still observe the individual that you are communicating for facial expressions, body language etc. In addition, they were seldom allowed to leave the grounds. Sometimes you may even find that individuals appear to listen intently and nod whilst you are talking but have no clue what you are talking about (I am guilty of this myself, very regularly!). Describe ways of checking whether an individual has understood a communication and how to address any misunderstandings. First an foremost, health professionals should display a modern and positive attitude towards people with learning disabilities in their day-to-day practice. The 1960s and 1970s saw many factors that would eventually lead to a review of services for people with learning disabilities, including: In the 1980s, more individuals with learning disabilities were relocated to local communities and the hospitals began to close, culminating in the National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990, which put the onus on local authorities to support them to stay in the community. Healthcare for people with learning disabilities was provided by the doctors and nurses of the institutions that they were forced to live in during the 19th and early to mid 20th centuries. This is professional advocacy law services represented by legally qualified solicitors/lawyers/barristers. Understand how to support individuals during the last days of life: 3: 3: ... 1.3 Explain how practices that support equality and inclusion reduce the likelihood of discrimination ... Assess the individual in a health and social care setting Debbie Slack :: Health and Social Care Level 2 Unit : 24 Understand the Context of Supporting Individuals with learning Disabilities. Integration of people with learning disabilities into the wider community can help create more understanding between individuals and quash popular misconceptions. At the top of the hierarchy of external agencies that have a role in changing attitudes, policy and practice is the government. Our relationships with family and friends define and shape who we are; Family and friends provide all sorts of help and support, from small to big things; Having positive relationships with family and friends makes us happier and healthier; Much of what we know about the world, we learn from our family and friends; Family and friends provide us with 'social capital' – material and non-material resources that we can use to achieve things we cannot achieve on our own; Through existing friends, we can get to meet new friends; a The Commission has wide powers to intervene in the affairs of a charity where things have gone wrong. Struggling financially to make ends meet and having limited options for improving your financial situation; Feeling socially isolated or lonely, having few friends and limited opportunities to meet new people or make new relationships; Having limited access to community resources such as health, educational and recreational services; Having no 'voice' and influence over decisions that affect your life. In the latter half of the 20th century, as more people left institutions and integrated with local communities, more activities were provided for people with learning disabilities by local authorities and charities such as MENCAP. Skills for Care and Skills for Health are charities that promote best practice and workforce and workforce development in health and social care. Other charities such as Mencap and Scope have done a lot of lobbying on behalf of individuals with learning disabilities to help change attitudes and policy. This is the desired outcome for most people and training can be provided to help individuals with learning disabilities gain the skills they need to self-advocate. This type of advocacy can be limited in use as a friend of family member may have a conflict of interest. In the 21st century, services for individuals with learning disabilities have improved greatly, particularly following the 2001 white paper ‘Valuing People‘ (later updated in 2009 ‘Valuing People Now‘), which started a person-centred approach to learning disability services. Consequently, support staff, social workers, medical professionals and sometimes even family members make poor advocates. This was also the view of the majority of families of individuals with learning disabilities and the professionals that supported them. Instead of just making a list of the meals that they like, you should sit down with them and jointly fill in a menu planner. It usually results from positive action taken to change the circumstances and habits that lead, or have led, to social exclusion. Neglecting to do so can lead to criminal prosecution, as can subjecting an individual to abuse, which will be treated as a hate crime. also stated that enablers of social inclusion were the creation and development of friendships through supported community participation, occupying valued social roles, community presence, social skill development, meaningful activities and choice. This includes individuals that are disadvantaged by disability. balance citizens’ rights and responsibilities. This is significant for individuals with learning disabilities and their families as it means they can expect to be treated as an individual and have their rights respected. 1. There is also the increased worry that the family may feel due to the individual possibly being vulnerable and easily-led – this can also lead to the individual being over-protected. Take a few minutes to reflect on what you believe about people with learning disabilities and inclusion. Examples of social inclusion for people with learning disabilities could include lack of finances, lack of suitable transport, lack of proper support or institutionalisation. Standard 9: Awareness of Mental Health, Dementia and Learning Disabilities, Standard 15: Infection Prevention and Control, Implement Person-Centred Approaches in Care Settings, Safeguarding and Protection in Care Settings, Health, Safety and Well-Being in Care Settings, Understand the Context of Supporting Individuals with Learning Disabilities, Promote Personal Development in Care Settings, Promote Equality and Inclusion in Care Settings, Promote Person-Centred Approaches in Care Settings, Promote Health, Safety and Wellbeing in Care Settings, Promote Effective Handling of Information in Care Settings, Identify legislation and policies that are designed to promote the human rights, inclusion, equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities, Explain how this legislation and policies influence the day to day experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families, Explain what is meant by ‘learning disability’, Give examples of causes of learning disabilities, Describe the medical and social models of disability, State the approximate proportion of individuals with a learning disability for whom the cause is ‘not known’, Describe the possible impact on a family of having a member with a learning disability, Explain the types of services that have been provided for individuals with learning disabilities over time, Describe how past ways of working may affect present services, Identify some of the key changes in the following areas of the lives of individuals who have learning disabilities: a) where people live b) daytime activities c) employment d) sexual relationships and parenthood e) the provision of healthcare, Explain the meaning of the term ‘social inclusion’, Explain the meaning of the term ‘advocacy’, Describe ways to build empowerment and active participation into everyday support with individuals with learning disabilities, Explain how attitudes are changing in relation to individuals with learning disabilities, Give examples of positive and negative aspects of being labelled as having a learning disability, Describe steps that can be taken to promote positive attitudes towards individuals with learning disabilities and their family carers, Explain the roles of external agencies and others in changing attitudes, policy and practice, Identify ways of adapting each of the following when communicating with individuals who have learning disabilities a) verbal communication b) non-verbal communication, Explain why it is important to use language that is both ‘age appropriate’ and ‘ability appropriate’ when communicating with individuals with learning disabilities. Essentially, you should show respect to the individuals that you communicate with by being open and honest, speaking to them as an adult and conveying your message in a way that they can process and understand. Van Asselt et al. After giving an individual some information, it is a good idea to ask them if they have understood what you are saying. This has made societal prejudice unacceptable in the eyes of the law and an individual with a learning disability must be given the same opportunities as everybody else in all aspects of life including work and recreation. Twenty men and six women were involved aged 20-65, either from independent living units or group homes. Sentence structure – try to keep your sentences short using 1-3 keywords, Tone of voice – keep your tone of voice in line with what you are saying, try to sound relaxed and not upset, angry or patronising, Body language – keep body language in line with what you are saying, Facial expressions – keep facial expressions in line with what you are saying, Eye contact – some individuals prefer eye contact whilst it makes others feel uncomfortable, Direction – speak directly to the individual and not to their family or support staff, Ask open questions – questions that have a yes/no answer can often result in an automatic response. Group advocacy is when several people with similar issues unite to represent one another and work towards a common goal and speak out collectively. For example, imagine a person with a learning disability is unable to read but is a member of a book club that regularly meets to discuss the books that they have read – the individual is able to participate because they listen to audio books. The Care Act 2014 puts the responsibility on local authorities to promote the wellbeing of individual’s that require care. Life in early institutions was often harsh and very difficult. This has led to much more collaboration, choice and independence for individuals. An individual may use one or more of them at different times in their lives depending on their personal needs and circumstances. Understand the importance of a positive, person-centred approach to risk assessment 3. Individuals with learning disabilities often require far more support than those that don’t and may never be fully independent. This can even include some workers in the health and social care industry – for instance, a nurse who left work to start a family in the 1990s, then returned in 2019 would have antiquated views of how to care for people with learning disabilities. Instructed advocacy is when an individual tells their advocate what they would like them to say and do. Be aware of unconscious bias. It is not appropriate to talk to them as you would a child as this can come across as rude and patronising. This means that individuals with learning disabilities and their families have a lot more control over the care and support that they receive. You can do this by asking questions or asking them to collaborate on their care plan when it is due for review. c) A description of how inclusive practice can promote equality and support diversity. For example, after someone has spoken to you, you could say something like: It is also important to encourage individuals to ask questions if there is something that they don’t quite understand or ask you to repeat yourself, perhaps using different words or utilising visual aids. Age-appropriate language means using words that are suitable for a particular age group. Failure to do so can leave services antiquated and put the most vulnerable people in our society at risk. And the British Institute of Learning Disabilities do not give an exact proportion but do say: … for many who are diagnosed with having a general learning disability, the cause remains unknown. Early institutional life often meant that men and women with learning disabilities were segregated and did not have the opportunity to form intimate relationships with one another. They have a right to choose what they eat and when, how they dress and when. However, this is not always possible and advocacy services still have an important role to play. Understand how communities can support social inclusion (Unit HSC 3071:1) 1. The Human Rights Act, Equality Act and Care Act have helped people to understand that disability does not mean an individual has any less rights than anybody else and that it is unlawful to discriminate on this basis. ensuring that an individual has understood what you have said, Genetic/inherited conditions passed down from previous generations of the same family, The mother becoming ill or drinking excessive alcohol during pregnancy, Birth complications such as the child having an oxygen deficiency in the brain or head trauma during birth, Contact with damaging materials such as radiation, L’Arche communities where people with and without learning disabilities could live together, Campaigns on behalf of people with learning disabilities to improve conditions and services, most notably by Lord Rix, it is made clear that the individual may require additional support, understanding or accommodations, it can promote social inclusion as some people are genuinely interested about how people are different from one another, it is required to fulfill some eligibility criteria such as benefit claims, it is efficient in communication when talking about groups of similar individuals – for example it is far easier to use the term ‘learning disability’ than to refer to a list of conditions, symptoms or cognitive abilities, it helps individuals with similar issues and challenges come together and form a group identity, it helps organisations to do things that could benefit individuals with learning disabilities such as lawmakers or research groups, it does not promote the identity and strengths of each individual as labels are, inherently, broad and wide-ranging, it can cause individuals to be singled-out, ridiculed, harassed and bullied, it can cause individuals with learning disabilities thinking less of themselves and result in a lowered self-worth, self-esteem and self-confidence, it can restrict expectations and put limits on an individual that may not have otherwise existed. 1.1 Identify legislation and policies that are designed to promote the human rights, inclusion, equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities, 1.2 Explain how this legislation and policies influence the day to day experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families, 2.1 Explain what is meant by ‘learning disability’, 2.2 Give examples of causes of learning disabilities, 2.3 Describe the medical and social models of disability, 2.4 State the approximate proportion of individuals with a learning disability for whom the cause is ‘not known’, 2.5 Describe the possible impact on a family of having a member with a learning disability, 3.1 Explain the types of services that have been provided for individuals with learning disabilities over time, 3.2 Describe how past ways of working may affect present services, 3.3 Identify some of the key changes in the following areas of the lives of individuals who have learning disabilities: a) where people live b) daytime activities c) employment d) sexual relationships and parenthood e) the provision of healthcare, 4.1 Explain the meaning of the term ‘social inclusion’, 4.2 Explain the meaning of the term ‘advocacy’, 4.4 Describe ways to build empowerment and active participation into everyday support with individuals with learning disabilities, 5.1 Explain how attitudes are changing in relation to individuals with learning disabilities, 5.2 Give examples of positive and negative aspects of being labelled as having a learning disability, 5.3 Describe steps that can be taken to promote positive attitudes towards individuals with learning disabilities and their family carers, 5.4 Explain the roles of external agencies and others in changing attitudes, policy and practice, 6.1 Identify ways of adapting each of the following when communicating with individuals who have learning disabilities a) verbal communication b) non-verbal communication, 6.2 Explain why it is important to use language that is both ‘age appropriate’ and ‘ability appropriate’ when communicating with individuals with learning disabilities. Understand the legislation and policies that support the human rights and inclusion of individuals with learning disabilities. This is where an individual with similar disabilities or experiences advocates for a person. Unfortunately, prejudice and outdated attitudes towards people with learning disabilities does still exist but thankfully it is becoming more of a minority. Having a family member with a learning disability can have a significant impact on those around them, both positively and negatively. Familiarising yourself with discrimination and the different forms it can take means that you can spot if it happens. Care Quality Commission (CQC) Regulations and Fundamental Standards set out the standards of care that all care providers must not fall below. In 1948, the NHS took control of institutions and they became hospitals, however the poor treatment of patients continued. Promoting the inclusion of people with disabilities is a key goal of the National Disability Authority and achieving this requires an array of social policies and programmes working coherently to respond to and support the person experiencing disability across their lifespan. During verbal communication with individuals with learning disabilities there are several things you may need to consider: Not all communication is verbal and some individuals with learning disabilities can only communicate via non-verbal means. In fact, one of the benefits of the evolution of services is that we now understand that we should never rest on our laurels and should strive for continuous improvement backed by research. Policies are rules and guidelines that have been created by your organisation or industry bodies to ensure that workers behave and do their jobs in their correct way. During the 1950’s, research suggested that individuals with learning disabilities had more ability than had previously been thought and would be able to live successfully and independently in the community. There are several different types of advocacy available for people with learning disabilities. For individuals with learning disabilities, it can sometimes be difficult to make their voice heard and their wishes considered. When supporting individuals with learning disabilities, it is important to build empowerment and active participation into your day-to-day practice. Be able to support individuals to make decisions about risks 5. It is very important that we are aware of what these are and we adhere to them as they are designed to protect ourselves, our organisation and the individuals that we support. The Education (Handicapped Children) Act 1970 and Education Act 1981 made education a universal right and that all children should be taught in mainstream schools wherever possible. Assignment Help >> Other Subject Support Individuals to be Part of a CommunityLearning outcomes1 Understand how communities can support social Outcome 4 Understand the basic principles and practice of advocacy, empowerment and active participation in relation to supporting individuals with learning disabilities and their families. It could also mean keeping sentences short and to the point using a limited number of keywords. You may also want to ask them to repeat it back to you in their own words. It also means you’re in a position to report any issues to management (especially if the discriminated person doesn’t … Advocacy (provided by advocates) is an independent service that ensures that an individual has their say on issues that are important to them, input into their care provision and their rights defended. In the 1930s there was a campaign for voluntary sterilisation for people with learning disabilities, which was also a recommendation of the the Brock Report. This means they can have difficulty understanding new or complex information, learning new skills and/or coping independently. Analyse the concepts of: >Social inclusion – >Social exclusion – >Community – 2. The Eugenics Movement discouraged individuals with learning disabilities from reproducing in order to prevent ‘defective genes’ being passed on. Understand the legal and policy framework underpinning an individual’s right to make decisions and take risks 4. Topics include the history of individuals with learning disabilities in society, legislation, advocacy, social inclusion, active participation and communication. Past ways of working with individuals with learning disabilities went from the institution/asylum method throughout the first half of the 20th century where individuals were segregated from ‘normal’ society and even treated like criminals to integration with local communities with a focus on care but with limited rights and finally to the person centred approach of 21st century where services are tailored to the individual’s needs. It also opens opportunities to make and share experiences with others in the local community that face similar challenges. Understand the importance of risk taking in everyday life 2. Person-centred active support is a way of ensuring people living with a disability become involved in social communication whenever the opportunity arises. You can also support active participation with the individuals you provide care for by: Being non-judgmental. Sadly, it was rarely enforced and the disabled register was inaccurate. This began the integration of individuals with learning disabilities into local communities and the start of day centres, hostels and community residential care. Similarly, be mindful that adults with learning disabilities have the same hopes, dreams and desires as anyone else, so do not need to ‘protected’ from discussing things other members of their age group may talk about. The Care Quality Commission (CQC) is the regulator for all health and social care services in England and ensure that policy and practice are performed correctly. It makes it unlawful for an individual with disabilities to be discriminated against. Building awareness is a first step towards real change. 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